History and Traditions of Youth Services Librarianship


Youth services librarianship is a term that refers to all library services for youth zero to 18 years years of age in public or school library settings. Youth services librarians coordinate events and plan programming, provide information, facilitate learning, provide resources, develop collections, advocate the importance of early reading, and protect the rights of youth. Library service to youth is generally thought to have originated in the United States and Great Britain but now occurs worldwide. The years from 1876 to 1900, when literacy and childhood were first praised by educators and scholars of the late nineteenth century, are widely accepted as the key developmental period of public library services to youth.

Historical Foundations and Traditions

The historical foundations and traditions of youth services librarianship have changed relatively little over the course of the institution's history. Today, though times and technologies have changed, libraries foster the same creative, learning environment for equitable access to resources and information as set forth by early library science best practices (Walter vii).

  • Libraries serve humanity.
  • Respect all forms by which knowledge is communicated.
  • Use technology intelligently to enhance service.
  • Protect free access to knowledge.
  • Honor the past and create the future.

More specifically, the ideology of youth services librarianship seeks to nurture, welcome, protect and promote youth rights and reading. The core beliefs of youth services can still trace its heritage to the many influential first women children's librarians who adhered to a system of beliefs that Betsy Hearne and Christine Jenkins term the seven articles of faith:

  1. a belief in the primacy and uniqueness of the individual child
  2. a belief in the critical importance of individual choice in young people's reading
  3. a firm belief in the strength and resilience of young people
  4. a belief in the children's room as an egalitarian republic of readers
  5. a belief in literature as a postitive force for understanding not only between individuals, but also between groups, and nations
  6. a friendly and unsentimental older sister's attitude towards children
  7. an assumption that children's librarians would prevail over adversity in the performance of their professional work

Youth services librarians today may find it helpful to reexamine and evaluate the history and traditions of youth services librarianship in order to meet current and future needs of patrons. Like their foremothers before them, children's librarians of the current generation face a multitude of child needs, limited funding, and changing economic and cultural landscapes.

Horse drawn book wagon, 1943 (Enoch Pratt Free Library).

Pioneers in Youth Services Librarianship

  • Margaret A. Edwards (1902-1988) Margaret A. Edwards is considered to to be one of the leading pioneers in the youth services movement in the 20th century. Earning her library degree from Columbia University in 1941, Edwards went on to be hired by the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Maryland. Realizing her need to familiarize herself with young adult literature, Edwards endeavored to expand the small existing collection. Among her most notable changes to the library were the introduction of book talks and book wagon. Margaret Edwards was the first youth librarians of her time on the east coast to extend the library's services to the masses on a mobile, horse-drawn wagon.

  • Clara W. Hunt (1871-1958) Clara W. Hunt graduated from the New York Public Library School in 1898. Before returning to school, she served as a principal in a public school in Utica, New York. Following the completion of her library degree, she took charge of the Newark, N.J., Free Public Library until 1902. In 1903 she became the Superintendent of the Children's Department of the Brooklyn Free Public Library where she avidly worked to give the Children's Department a "natural, friendly, atmosphere" (Hazeltine 135 and 229). Hunt wrote and published numerous articles and a book about reading strategies for boys and youth.

  • Anne Carroll Moore (1871-1961)"Anne Carroll Moore probably did more than anyone...to define and institutionalize public library services for children" (Walter 4). She was an outspoken advocate for children with a passion for nurturing youth and love of reading. She opened the library doors to children, believing that libraries ought to be inviting, welcoming, and comfortable to patrons of any age. Her development of several children's rooms included child-sized fitted furniture, story hours, and a collection of choice noncirculating books always available to the children (Walter 4). Moore originally had plans to become a lawyer like her father but was forced to seek a career elsewhere upon the untimely death of both of her parents in 1892. She instead enrolled in the Pratt Institute Library School in 1895 and graduated the following year. That same year, Moore was offered a position at the Pratt Institute Free Library as children's librarian, which she readily accepted. As the position was entirely new, Moore was given permission to design the children's area and programming as she so desired. Moore supervised the children's services at the New York Public library until 1941 when she retired (Walter 3). Throughout her career, Moore followed and trained librarians in the "four respects" (1) respect for children, (2) respect for children's literature, (3) respect for children's libraries, and (4) respect for the children's library profession. Moore also proved influential to children's book publishing. Using her position in New York, she developed several rich relationships with members of the writing and publishing community and reviewed books in The Bookman and Horn Book Magazine (Walter 5).

  • Frances Jenkins Olcott (1872-1963) Frances Jenkins Olcott was influential in many ways to the standardization of the youth services profession. She wrote and published over 24 books and submitted professional literature about public library practice. In 1900, she founded and opened the Training School at the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh where she trained and prepared new graduates for careers in the Children's Department.

  • Effie L. Power (1873-1969) Receiving her degree from the Training School at the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh in 1906, Effie L. Power adopted the influential practice and beliefs of Frances Jenkins Olcott. She then found opportunity to apply her training to several different libraries, one being the Cleveland Public Library where she opened the library's first children's room. She believed wholeheartedly in what children had to say about books and valued young readers opinions. In addition to her work in the library, Power also taught library, literature, and storytelling courses at several colleges and universities and more than once chaired the Children's Section of the ALA.

  • Jean Roos (1891-1982) Jean Roos received her Certificate of Library Training from the University of Cleveland in 1928. Her career as a librarian took many different titles: children's library, school librarian, director, and supervisor of youth services. Compared to other notable youth librarian pioneers of her day, Jean Roos is perhaps the most interdisciplinary. She is most well known for recognizing the need for youth librarians to collaborate within the field and with other youth services agencies.

  • Frances Clarke Sayers (1897-1989) As the successor of Anne Carroll Moore, Frances Clarke Sayers took over the New York Public Library children's room in 1941. Like Moore, Sayers was an influential and notable advocate for quality and excellence in children's books. Her passion for imaginative youth literature led her to give her quotable "Lose Not the Nightingale" speech at the 1937 ALA Annual Conference, which praised the value of literature and child experience as worthy as the experiences of man (Walter 20). Sayers and Moore believed in the importance of book selection and the power of literature. Sayers became an author herself and was well known for her work, teacher, storytelling, and literary criticism.

  • Mabel Williams (1887-1985) Mabel Williams studied at Simmons College in Boston where she received her B.S. in library science in 1909. In 1913, Anne Carroll Moore found the opportunity to hear Williams speak at a state Library Association meeting. Soon after, Anne Carroll Moore invited Williams to work for her. Williams is known for organizing outreach programs to youth that carted endless amounts of books to factories, businesses, and schools where young adults and children would be able to take possession of them.

For additional information about early youth services librarian women pioneers please visit http://www.unc.edu/~bflorenc/libraryladies/liblady.html.

Anne Carroll Moore in her New York Public Library office, 1906 (Miller).

19th Century Definitions of Childhood

Definitions of what it meant to be a child in the late 19th century varied greatly from modern concepts of childhood. Due to the low socioeconomic and immigrant status of many 19th century families, children as young as 12 to 14 typically started working in the home or were farmed out to work in neighboring homes or factories (McDowell 29). This working class of children preformed the labor of adults and brought a new and unique set of needs to the library. Prior to the mass movement of child workers, young people commonly transitioned into adulthood by learning a trade via an assistantship. Poverty, immigration, and urbanization, however, often forced children to support their families by working in factories, which they received little training for and robbed them of an education. Despite children participating in the workforce, definitions of childhood did not change and children were still considered infants up until the late age of six.
Ages 0-6, "referred to the years of maternal control over the child" (McDowell 27).
Young Children
Ages 6-12
Young Men or Young People
Ages 12-25
Childhood or Youth
Birth to 21 years

Libraries for Children, 1800-1876

With few exceptions, the first American libraries did not open their doors to children. Public libraries in the early 1800s began with intentions to “provide good reading to adults who were not wealthy enough to purchase their own books and to help assimilate immigrants from Europe into American society” (Walter 1). The recently formed nation and rights of free men did not apply to children. Nonetheless interest and concern for the moral upbringing, and intellectual education of the new nation's youth began to form (Foster 6). As industrialization swept the cities of the country, child labor began in factories and mines in response to the need to support the upsurge of poor families. Organized concern for the social welfare of child laborers, however, did not manifest until well into the second half of the century (Foster 7). Despite intense interest in education at this time, school libraries did not in fact appear on the library scene until much later (Foster 9).

Often the only access to books that young children and youth had would be through institutions for children. These institutions, created to protect children from corruption and to educate them, established libraries to loan books with the belief that reading was powerful for a child’s development. The first of these institutions, reform schools, were established to “re-form” their residents’ characters, the residents being a mixture of youth convicted of crimes and those whose parents felt unable to control them. 56 reform schools existed in 1879, and of those 56, at least 40 had libraries, the largest being the New York House of Refuge library which held 4,000 volumes (McDowell 2007).

Other institutions, such as orphanages and asylums, also had libraries. In the aftermath of the Civil War, many children were left orphans or with only one parent who was unable to provide adequately for them. As their name suggests, asylums were established as a respite for families in crisis, to care for children on a temporary basis as their families worked to get back on their feet. In 1876, at least 52 asylums had libraries for their residents (McDowell 2007).

The largest institution to provide libraries for children was the Sunday School, an educational hour provided by Protestant churches and designed to provide religious education for children. The idea for Sunday School had been imported from England, where it had been established for poor children with the additional benefit of teaching them how to read. Unlike the Sunday Schools in England, the American version was open to all, including adults, though in practice it focused on children under the age of 14. The Sunday School would loan out books from its collection, which included religious tracts and doctrinal instructions particular to the respective church’s denomination, primers, and periodicals, so that children would have the chance to be educated and formed in Christian practice on other days than just the Sabbath. Underpinning this idea was the belief that reading had great influence over the development of the young, an idea that was fifty years ahead of public libraries. In 1870, the US Census reported the existence of 33,580 Sunday School libraries which contained 8,346,153 works. However, most libraries only contained 200-300 books, which was smaller than the collections of most public libraries (McDowell 2007).

Libraries for Children, 1876-1900

Up until this point, it was a general rule that public libraries did not extend their services to children. Not until 1876 did educational leaders reconsider the role of the public library as an educational institution. The birth of the children's library profession stemmed from the fear that children would develop a “taste for light reading—dime novel and cheap stories” rather than developing a taste for "fine, uplifting" literature gave rise to the notion that librarians ought to “reach children early in their lives in order to influence the kind of adults they would become” (Walter 1-2). Around this time, influential discussions about child social, physical, emotional, and educational needs were beginning to take root in society and the dawn of the Era of the Child began to budge open the doors of public libraries so that by the end of the century librarians started to offer specialized services to children. Minneapolis, Hartford, Denver, and San Fransisco were among some of the earliest advocates for children's services in the library. By 1896, more than a dozen libraries across the nation reported serving youth in some way (Rollock 1). The Pratt Institute in Brooklyn and the Providence Public Library in Rhode Island were among the first libraries to specifically feature designated children's spaces (Walter 2).

During the late 1800s, few books existed that were published with children as the intended audience. In fact, the rise of youth services librarianship dramatically impacted and shaped the children's publishing industry. At the time, art books, with beautiful and rich illustrations, intended for adults accounted for a large portion of the material available on the shelves to children. Other reading material for kids in the nineteenth-century was highly censored by adults. "Only those books which stimulated mental growth" as W.I. Fletcher, the American Library Association (ALA) president in 1891-92, liked to say, or books that had "something positively good about them" were given to children to read (Rollock 2). Prior to the creation of designated youth spaces, library collections for young adults and children were hidden from view and tucked amongst books on the adult shelf. It's no wonder kids didn't want to come into the library! There were no books for them, and what books that were in the collection were scattered throughout the building.

Soon early forward-thinking librarians like Anne Carroll Moore and Clara W. Hunt, who believed in the value and quality of children's literature began formulating numerous lists of recommended books for young readers. Anne Carroll Moore even went on to develop several professional relationships with now well-known children's authors and publishes in New York such as Beatrix Potter, Walter de la Mare, Leslie Brooke, and Padraic Colum (Walter 5). Her interaction with the writing, publishing, and critic communities sparked and generated a new interest in children's books. Not long after Moore's own written assessment of child needs, her contemporaries also began submitting works about professional practice to popular magazines and journals as well as publishing books. Perhaps for the first time in history, the needs of American youth were finding their way into professional literature. In conjunction with other Progressive Era movements, libraries sought to offer kids new, attractive services and a place in the library. The short span of only ten years from 1890 to 1900, libraries saw a flurry of reading rooms and circulation desks opening to children. Incredible amounts of serious literary criticism began to take place. Libraries began to hire staff, loan books to classrooms, manage new collections, and create special facilities to accommodate youth (Foster 12).

A children's reading room in 1929.

Services for Children, 1900-1920

By 1900, children were beginning to be seen as fully accepted members of society and their status as library users became official. This in turn changed how children were perceived within the family and within the community (Foster 5-6). Children's publishing and bookmaking too was changing, as was library administration. In sum, the first twenty years of the new century comprise a period of development, establishment, and experimentation.

Anne Carroll Moore and Frances Jenkins Olcott started training classes for children's librarians, helping to set practice standards. Positions for directors and supervisors of children's rooms across the nation popped up and were quickly filled by Moore and Olcott's newly trained graduates (Foster 14-15). Moore was also particularly influential at the time for her leadership and critical writings.

The critical issue facing libraries at this time was not only the establishment of professional practice, but also the increasing number of children in school. Teachers and educators were unfamiliar with using the library and therefore unable to assist students with locating reference material. Thus, recently created secondary and elementary schools began making agreements with their local public libraries to provide for reading materials that their students needed. Their subject-centered curriculums also required libraries to acquire more and more collection materials and educate youth in how to use the library if the institution was going to raise the level of education (Foster 15). However, by the end of World War I, the National Education Association (NEA) became unhappy with this arrangement and began pushing for more direct oversight over library collections for their students. It began promoting the establishment of separate school libraries that would be organized and staffed by the local school systems, and would be designed specifically for teachers and students to use in aid of the school curriculum (Wiegand 2007).

Children reading in the children's room during Christmas time.

Library Service Development for Children, 1920-1950

Youth services librarianship broadened its horizons and standardized its practices in the years following 1920 (Foster 18). Public libraries focused more on extending children's library services in growing numbers of users. Children's libraries, expanding as they were, faced difficult budget cuts. In the span of only thirty years, the nation has witnessed two world wars and the Great Depression. Nonetheless, librarians during this time re-focused their efforts on community-related library services and spent the rest of the first half of the century "trying to maintain, extend, and modify" (Foster 19).

Storytelling for young children was popular during the beginning of this era and a large portion of a librarians time consisted of preparing and conducting storytelling programs. Home television, however, greatly changed the popularity of story hours and attendance dropped until a resurgence in storytelling in the 1950s and 1960s (Foster 20).

The concept and development of spaces in the library for "teen patrons" also arose during this time period (Foster 20). Changing definitions of the age of childhood often left adolescents youth without a home in the library. Teenagers who once belonged in the children's room no longer had a place, nor did they find their way to the adult section. The Cleveland Public Library opened the first teen reading room in 1925 with a collection of book of interest to teenage readers (Foster 21).

School libraries also grew during this period, and worked with public libraries to take on the responsibility of educating youth in resource retrieval. The NEA established standards for school libraries in the 1920s, and the libraries began receiving funding from local governments which provided for school library supervisors. State and local governments also began to issue recommended reading lists and provide handbooks for the school libraries. As with public libraries, the growth of school libraries was disrupted by the Great Depression and World War II, but after the war, school libraries began to grow again, enlarging their collections to include non-print materials (Wiegand 2007).

Library Services for Children, 1950-1975

Twenty-five years of changes in the education system brought with it changes to library services to youth. More flexible instructional programming and advancements in technology impacted school libraries and public libraries together. School libraries found they could not provide the services and resources requested of them by new education and learning trends. Public libraries doubled efforts to assist schools in response by purchasing more reference materials (Foster 24). Federal and state funding and grants became available, most often geared to aid school libraries, at this time. "By the end of 1972 more than 1,800 buildings had been built or remodeled and were serving some 60 million Americans" (Mathews 78). Other notable changes to youth services librarianship took the form of assessing and meeting the needs of unique user groups. For instance, book collections were created with ethnic and racial minorities in mind, special interest clubs were formed, cultural book displays were created in order to extend the doors of the library to youth groups that were previously excluded (Foster 27). Much more attention was paid to demographics, economics, social changes, and community than ever before. National Library Week was established in 1958 in a new effort to boost reading promotion and battle the growing tread that reading was not cool (Mathews 78).

Listening to the radio in the children's room.

Contemporary Youth Services Librarianship

Youth services librarianship in the 21st century combines many of the core foundations that began the profession. Youth librarians continue to meet special needs, provide readers' advisory, involve youth, create and maintain spaces and collections for youth, and protect youth rights. The incredible and continual advancement in technology further allows for the development and implementation of new youth services. Libraries today have countless possibilities when it comes to serving youth and encouraging them to participate in the programming process. Teen Advisory boards are one such example of how teens make their voice heard in the library.

Early-childhood and parent-involvment programs have become increasingly popular in the recent decade. Collaborative programming and interdisciplinary relationships speak of the new trend in youth services librarianship. From 1975 onward, growth for children's and youth departments has been slow as decisions have been made about how best to serve the nation's youth in light of rapidly changing times and cultures. Staff and library budgets have repeatedly been cut, forcing librarians to create creative solutions to the problems of material shortage, limited staffing, and reduced budget for programs. Despite budgetary setbacks, youth librarians work to make a difference in the lives of youth by means of mentoring, modeling, providing resources, and teaching the necessary literary and digital skills of engaged and active citizens.

Issues and Concerns

Today, children's materials account for more than half of library circulation records, yet up until this point library and academic scholars have largely ignored the history of youth services librarianship (Jenkins 3). Surprisingly scarce scholarship exists about the history of youth services librarianship. In the library realm, youth services "has long been considered the classic success story of American libraries", however, not until the late 1980s and 1990s have scholars considered the need to explore the field's history (Jenkins 2). As Christine Jenkins points out "the study of youth services librarianship is essentially the study of women," which is a likely contributing factor as to why information about the profession has been overlooked. Like other historically dominated professions, the first research and writing about library services to youth was done by early women in the field and consequently academic researchers today only have the biographies and work of early pioneers to documented and construct the history of the profession.

Aside from a latent scholarly interest and little thorough information about in the history of youth services librarianship, youth librarians continue to face new issues and advocacy. Ensuring access to materials has long been a concern of youth services librarians. Today though, access has an electronic face and protecting the intellectual rights of children has expanded beyond the book. Access to technology resources, teaching digital skills, and navigating the information Web have all become duties of the youth librarian. Promoting early literary to newborns and new parents has also become a concern for children's librarians. In short, the major concern of youth librarians has not changed. Developing programs that support youth advocacy and assist youth groups and their families in their daily lives is the number one focus of library work. Youth librarians are passionate about making the voice of the nation's youth heard, as well as communicating the value of youth services to education, personal growth, and development in times of tight budgetary concerns.

Defining Children's Literature

Children's Literature has been an amorphous concept for most of its history. Perry Nodelman discusses this problem in his book The Hidden Adult: Defining Children's Literature; the problem with defining children's literature as different from other literature lies in its very separation. If children's literature is different from other literature, then is it still worthy of study? Some authors, such as Scott O'Dell, complain that some of their books were not written with the intent of being for children, but were marketed as such. Does that mean that there does not have to be intent to be considered children's literature? Is there an easy answer to what children's literature is? Is only good literature at a lower reading level for children? Or can it be read by adults? What about the term literature? Can it be applied to the not-as-good books written for children? Michael Steig continues broadening the definition of children's literature by adding that children's literature is any literature that has "language as play, invention, and discovery, and life represented as a series of internal and external conflicts." This definition would remove authors such as Thomas Pynchon and James Joyce from the sphere of children's literature, while including many other authors who may not write at a child-appropriate level, but still evoke the required play and invention.

Given the problems in separating children's literature from other literature, the definitions given by various authors and scholars are plentiful. Some authors believe that children's literature is a simple version--a dumbed down version--of adult literature, citing the fact that while adult literature speaks to experience and knowledge, children's literature speaks to a lack of experience and knowledge. Others prefer to think of it as a genre, or "a group of texts characterized by recurrent features." This definition creates more questions, though, as children's literature itself has multiple genres, from fairy tales to non-fiction to fantasy. Yet another definition recalls the appropriateness of the text as a definition. If the characters and situations are appropriate for children, then the book can be part of children's literature. It is this final definition that may describe why children's literature has changed so drastically between the 1800s and today. In the 1800s and early 1900s, many children were treated simply as small adults. Charles Dickens, for instance, was forced to work in a boot-blacking factory so that his family could escape debtor's prison, and child labor did not become widespread until later in the Victorian Era. By defining children's literature as what is appropriate for children to read about, historical context becomes important. The Bible and Pilgrim's Progress may not be considered children's literature today, but the were the staple of children's literature in 1800.

List of Children's Literature Through the Ages

These lists are based on what children's literature was considered to be during the era, not what contemporary teachers, librarians, or educators would consider to be appropriate for children. This is also a partial list based on the most famous or important works from each era.

There were children's stories and works from before 1800, but they are few and very well-known, such as Perrault's Mother Goose stories, John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, and many hundreds of "penny dreadfuls," stories that you could buy for a penny. Other examples from before 1800 are Aesop's Fables (600 B.C.), Robinson Crusoe (Daniel Defoe), and Gulliver's Travels (Jonathan Swift).

Children's Literature 1800s

The Swiss Family Robinson
Johann Rudolph Wyss
The Nutcracker and the Mouse King
E.T.A. Hoffman
Sir Walter Scott
The Owl and the Pussycat
Edward Lear
The Water Babies
Charles Kingsley
Little Women
Louisa May Alcott
Alice In Wonderland
Through the Looking Glass
Lewis Carroll
The Frog Prince, The Baby's Opera
Walter Crane
The House that Jack Built
Randolph Caldecott
Children's Songs, Illustrations
Kate Greenaway
Uncle Remus stories
Joel Chandler Harris
The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood
Howard Pyle
The Daisy Chain
Charlotte M. Yonge
Jessica's First Prayer
Hesba Stretton
Huckleberry Finn
Mark Twain
The Headless Horseman
The Boy Hunters
Captain Mayne Reid
In the Hands of the Cave-Dwellers
G.A. Henty
Treasure Island
Robert Lewis Stevenson
Story of the Treasure Seekers
E. Nesbit
At the Back of the North Wind
George MacDonald
Just So Stories
Rudyard Kipling
Black Beauty
Anna Sewell

Children's Literature 1900-1950

Anne of Green Gables
Lucy Maud Montgomery
Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm
Kate Douglass Wiggin
Eleanor H. Porter
Peter Pan
J. M. Barrie
Wind in the Willows
Kenneth Grahme
Winnie the Pooh
A.A. Milne
Call of the Wild
Jack London
A Little Princess
Francis Hodgson Burnett
Five Children and It
E. Nesbit
The Lost World
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
The Hobbit
J.R.R. Tolkien
Curious George
H.A. Ray
Little House series
Laura Ingalls Wilder
Five on Treasure Island
Enid Blyton
Goodnight Moon
Margaret Wise Brown
Peter Rabbit
Beatrix Potter
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
Frank L. Baum
The Little Prince
Antoine de Saint-Exupery
Pippi Longstocking
Astrid Lindgren

Children's Literature 1950-Today

Catcher in the Rye
J.D. Salinger
The Outsiders
S.E. Hinton
Narnia Series
C.S. Lewis
Grumble Yard
John Rowe Townsend
The Friends
Rosa Guy
Boy Meets Boy
David Levithan
Number the Stars
The Giver
Lois Lowry
Looking for Alaska
John Green
Harry Potter
J.K. Rowling
The Hunger Games
Suzanne Collins
Stephanie Meyer
The Phantom Tollbooth
Norton Juster
A Barrel of Laughs, A Vale of Tears
Jules Feiffer
The Outcasts of 19 Schulyer Place
E. L. Koningsberg
Michael Chabon
Coraline, Sandman
Neil Gaiman
Bridge to Terabithia
Katherine Peterson
Among the Hidden
Margaret Haddix
Garth Nix
The B.F.G, Matilda,
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
Roald Dahl
Earthsea Chronicles
Ursula LeGuin
Where the Wild Things Are
Maurice Sendak
The Cat in the Hat
Dr. Seuss
To Kill a Mockingbird
Harper Lee
Are You There, God? It's Me, Margaret
Judy Blume
A Taste of Blackberries
Doris Buchanan Smith
Laurie Halse Anderson
His Dark Materials
Phillip Pullman

Additional Resources

Full-text online reprints of papers and addresses my notable early pioneers of library services to youth about the history, value, and administrative management of youth library centers.
ALSCs summary of some of the issues facing services to children and youth. Link and brief descriptions for locating tools and information about current issues in the field.

Children's Services in the American Public Library: A Selected Bibliography compiled by Fannette H. Thomas
An annotated bibliography with the resources available for further study. Includes seven pages of reference material about the history of the youth services librarianship profession, sixteen pages pertaining to professional staff, and print resources about the philosophical and organizational beliefs of early librarians and traditional programs of services to youth.
This course syllabus page for UNTs History and Culture (Ethnography) of Youth Information Services and Systems class provides a useful list of texts about the early history of youth services.
A contemporary and historic look at different outreach programs and services focused on youth and children as well as highlighted overviews of popular historic children's literature.


Foster, Joan, ed. Reader in Children's Librarianship. Englewood: Information Handling Services, 1978. Print. Readers in Librarianship and Information Science.

Hazeltine, Alice Isabel. "Values in Library Work With Children." Library Work With Children. H.W. Wilson, 1917. 396. Print.

Hearn, Betsy, and Jenkins, Christine. "Sacred Texts: What our foremothers left us in the way of psalms, proverbs, precepts, and practices." Horn Book 75.5, 1999. 536-58. Print.

Horse Drawn Book Wagon. Photograph. Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore. History of the Library. Web. 27 Nov. 2011. <http://www.prattlibrary.org/history/>.

Hunt, Peter. International Companion: Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Routletge, 1996. Print.

Jenkins, Christine A. "The History of Youth Services Librarianship: A Review of the Research Literature." Libraries & Culture 35.1 (2000): 103-40. Print.

Mathews, Virginia H.. "Kids Couldn't Wait Then Either, But Sometimes They Had To." American Libraries 1997. 76-80. Print.

McDowell, Kathleen. "The Cultural Origins Of Youth Services Librarianship, 1876-1900." © 2007 by Kathleen McDowell. <http://www.katemcdowell.com/cultural-origins-mcdowell-dissertation.pdf>.

Miller, Julie. "Anne Carroll Moore." On-Lion for Kids. The New York Public Library, 2004. Web. 18 Nov. 2011. <http://kids.nypl.org/parents/ocs_centennial_acm.cfm>.

Nikolajeva, Maria, Ed. Aspects and Issues in the History of Children's Literature. International Research Society for Children's Literature, 1995. Print.

Nodelman, Perry. The Hidden Adult: Defining Children's Literature. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. Print.

Reynolds, Kimberley. Children's Literature: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2011. E-Book.

Rollock, Barbara T. Public Library Services for Children. Hamden: Shoe String, 1988. Print.

Walter, Virginia A. Children & Libraries: Getting It Right. Chicago: American Library Association, 2001. Print.

Wiegand, Wayne A. "The Rich Potential of American Public School Library History: Research Needs and Opportunities for Historians of Education and Librarianship." Libraries & The Cultural Record 42.1 (2007):57-74. Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts. Web. 29 Nov. 2012.