The Problem


With the emphasis on test-taking and the competition with multimedia, today’s youth are reading less. “Many elementary school reading programs require children to do a certain amount of reading every night. These programs disappear in middle school. As the curriculum becomes more demanding and students’ extra-curricular activities increase, students may no longer read for pleasure. By eighth grade there is a 50 percent drop in reading for pleasure. If a student has not found his favorite genre, chances are he will no longer read for pleasure” (Gander 20). A multitude of reading promotions throughout the world have been implemented to get kids reading.



“Readicide”:


“Readicide” – “the systematic killing of the love of reading, often exacerbated by the inane, mind-numbing practice found in schools” (Gallagher 2).

In his book Readicide: How Schools are Killing Reading and What You Can Do About It, Kelly Gallager examines four factors that contribute to readicide. He notes that “rather than helping students, many of the reading practices found in today’s classrooms are actually contributing to the death of reading. In an earnest attempt to instill reading, teachers and administrators push practices that kill many students’ last chance to develop into lifelong readers” (2). Such practices must be reevaluated if we want to instill a love of reading in our children.

1: Schools value the development of test-takers more than they value the development of readers

According to Gallagher, the educational system is creating “test-takers at the expense of readers” (7). The pressure for schools to pass state-mandated tests means that students are only learning the bare minimum in order to pass tests, and educators are only skimming the surface. “When teachers and students spend their energies preparing for shallow high-stakes assessments, deeper learning—the kind of thinking valued in colleges and the workforce—suffers” (21). This practice needs to be re-evaluated if we want to foster reading in our children and teach them life skills more valuable than test-taking.

To circumvent this, it is necessary to “involve the key players (teachers, students, administrators, literacy coaches, superintendents, board members, legislators, newspaper reporters) in hard talk. We have to take an honest, perhaps painful, look at what is happening to young readers in our schools. We have to be ready to step on toes and be prepared to have our own toes stepped on” (24). Gallagher concludes that ““if students are taught to read and write well, they will do fine on mandated reading tests. But if they are only taught to be test-takers, they will never learn to read and write well. A terrible price is paid when schools value the development of test-takers more than they value the development of readers” (26). Tests are not a part of a person’s adult life, but reading can be; it won’t be, however, if students are not shown the benefits and joys of reading when they are young.

2: Schools are limiting authentic reading experiences

It is also important to provide students with a wide variety of authentic reading material. We cannot remove books and replace them with textbooks and workbooks, and it is also important to provide access to other materials such as magazines and newspapers. This will give students a broader knowledge foundation, which will, in turn, make them better readers, writers, and test-takers. “When schools remove books in favor of practice tests, when schools eliminate subjects such as science and history, when schools drown students in test preparation, they are ensuring students will not become excellent readers…In the fevered quest to raise test scores, schools are irreparably harming young readers…[but] by providing a wide and deep reading experience, we actually help students raise their test scores (without inflicting readicide)” (34-35).

One of the most important things to do to prevent readicide is to take a stand: make sure that your school district is providing a wealth of reading materials for students. “If your students don’t have books, your school district is spending its money in the wrong places…If your students do not have books, your school district’s priorities are misplaced… when the decisions upstairs play a role in permanently damaging the literacy development of our children, it is time for us to take a stand…Make a stink. Make it happen. Of all the battles we face, this is the one worth falling on your sword for” (46). Gallagher also suggests that educators “augment books with authentic, real-world text” (46), “establish a book flood zone” and make sure a wide variety of reading materials are on hand (52), and “recognize and fight against summer reading loss” (55). Until school districts recognize the importance of reading, it is the responsibility of educators and librarians to fight for books and the emphasis on reading in the classroom.

3: Teachers are overteaching books

In what he calls the Chop-Chop Curriculum, Gallagher discusses how detrimental it is to students’ reading motivation when teachers pick books apart piece-by-piece. In teaching To Kill a Mockingbird, Gallagher’s school district provided a 122-page curriculum guide, which he claims “will not make our students wiser about the world they are soon to inherit. Instead it will achieve two things: It will (1) prepare them for the battery of state-mandated multiple-choice exams that loom in the spring and (2) ensure this classic novel is beaten to death. Worse, it will teach our students to hate reading” (69). Adults do not stop at the end of every page of a book to evaluate and reflect on the page they just read, so why do we make our children do it?

To prevent readicide, students need “access to great books and large doses of uninterrupted time to read them” (73). Research has shown that programs such as Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) and Free and Voluntary Reading (FVR), when implemented correctly, are great motivators for students to become lifelong readers (75). Gallagher also implemented something he calls “topic floods,” in which he provides “a packet for each student consisting of numerous new stories, editorials, and letters to the editor. I include a wide spectrum of opinion from both sides of the political spectrum…topic floods strengthen students’ prior knowledge, which they will need as thinking adults” (81). This is another great way to give students a broad knowledge base and get them excited about reading different kinds of materials about a variety of subjects.

4: Teachers are underteaching books

One the other end of the spectrum, we cannot just give students a book to read without providing any instruction. Such techniques can make reading difficult for students, who are not given any guidance, which leads to a hatred of books. “Because a teacher kills a great book by mishandling it doesn’t mean the book is stupid and pointless. It means the reader was not put in a position to discover the book’s greatness… Let’s never forget that there is beauty and value found in reading difficult literature. Our job is to lead our reluctant students to discover this beauty and value” (93-94). Therefore, it is important to find a balance, a “sweet spot” as Gallagher calls it, between over-teaching and under-teaching literature, but this balance is not the same for all schools or students.

A technique Gallagher has found helpful is to frame the text. Before students start reading, he gives them a preview of exam questions to give them a particular frame of reference when they read, a guide to some of the more difficult vocabulary, an overview of the historical context along with some background information of the author, and he discusses some ways in which this book brings value to the modern day readers (96). Another technique is to teach books using a “Big Chunk/Little Chunk Philosophy,” in which students are assigned larger chunks of reading at home, allowing them to get immersed in the material, and in the classroom they focus on some areas for close reading, giving them a deeper look into the text (101).


Advice from the Book Whisperer:
“The question can no longer be ‘How can we make time for independent reading?’ The question must be ‘How can we not?’” (Miller 51)

Donalyn Miller currently teaches fifth grade at O.A. Peterson Elementary in Fort Worth, TX. The Book Whisperer is about her experiences when she began her teaching career at Trinity Meadows Intermediate School in Keller, TX as a sixth grade language arts and social studies teacher. When she started teaching, she tried the usual method of assigning a novel for the entire class to read, and supplementing students with worksheets and other activities. She picked a book about sixth-graders, thinking the students would be as excited about the book and reading in general as she was, but it was evident from the start of the school year that this plan of creating a classroom of readers was doomed. She has since developed a program that has gotten her students excited about reading, boosted their state-mandated test results, and shown that if we want to foster generations of readers, reading instruction in the classroom needs to be re-evaluated.

Miller requires her students to read 40 books over the course of their sixth grade school year. They have to read a certain number of books covering a variety of genres (the numbers changed based on state requirements), and they get nine freebees. “I set a specific number of books that students must read in each genre, but I also allow them to choose nine from any genre to complete the forty-book total…This reading requirement exposes students to a variety of books and genres so that they can explore books they might not ordinarily read and develop an understanding of the literary elements, text features, and text structures of most books” (78-79). Almost all of her students reach this goal, and most of them surpass it, but she still celebrates the reading achievements of those few students who did not make it to 40 because they have gotten excited about reading. By teaching students to become readers, rather than teaching them how to read and how to take tests, Miller’s students are well-prepared for the end of the year state tests, and she does not need to spend much time preparing her students for the exams.

Her book, The Book Whisperer, details many techniques. Some of these include:

Reading in the classroom – her students read every day. At the start of the year, they are given 15 minutes of in-class reading, and they are up to 30 minutes by spring. Miller also tallied the amount of teaching time that was wasted with classroom interruptions, start of class warm-ups, worksheets for students who complete assignments early, and even picture day. Her students learn to fill these times with reading. The moment they enter her room, they start reading. If she gets a call from another teacher, or someone stopping in, her students read. Rather than “punishing” students who finish an assignment quickly with more work, they are rewarded with reading. On picture day, she takes a basket for their books. They read in line while waiting, drop the book in the basket before they get their picture taken, pick their book back up, and resume reading until the rest of the class is done (52-58).

Take them to the library – Miller’s class goes to the library at least every two weeks. This helps students learn how to navigate the library and gives them a chance to plan ahead with their reading. She shows her excitement for library day, and gets her students excited as well (58-61).

Let them choose their books and validate their choices – this is one of the most important elements. She lets her students choose the books they read but she never judges their choice of reading material. “I would rather have my students read books of questionable literary value than not read at all. Once students find at least one book they like and receive approval for reading books of their own choice, it is easier to move them toward books you suggest” (85).

Reading Notebooks – Rather than dissecting books piece-by-piece, and making students take tests and complete worksheets after every chapter, Miller has implemented the use of reading notebooks. The notebook includes a tally list to keep track of books read for each genre, a reading list, a books-to-read list, and a place for response entries, in which “students reflect on their personal reactions to the books they read and on the author’s writing. I write letters that respond back, asking questions and digging into students’ interpretations and appreciation of their books” (96). These notebooks become a working dialogue between Miller and her students, and she brings them out when she holds conferences with the students. She also keeps her own notebook.

Reading role models – having students see their teachers reading is another key factor in getting them excited about reading. During classroom reading time, Miller reads as well. Students are not allowed to use that time to work on other assignments, and she does not grade homework or respond to e-mails. They all read. By reading books her students recommend, her students (especially reluctant and struggling readers) also begin to trust her suggestions because she talks about books they love and is able to suggest similar ones she knows they will enjoy.

Reading as its own reward – “Reading is a university course in life; it makes us smarter by increasing our vocabulary and background knowledge of countless topics. Reading allows us to travel to destinations that we will never experience outside of the pages of a book. Reading is a way to find friends who have the same problems we do and who can give advice on solving those problems. Through reading, we can witness all that is noble, beautiful, or horrifying about other human beings. From a book’s characters, we can learn how to conduct ourselves. And most of all, reading is a communal act that connects you to other readers, comrades who have traveled to the same remarkable places that you have and been changed by them, too” (151). Such rewards should not be trivialized and cheapened by meaningless prizes that will not carry the same impact that pride, enjoyment, and a love of reading can bring.

Book Whisperer resources:
The Book Whisperer – Education Week Teacher – Blog (although she no longer writes this blog, her previous entries are archived here)
Nerdy Book Club – her new blog



Programs for School Librarians/Teachers


America’s Battle of the Books (www.battleofthebooks.org)

America’s Battle of the Books is a voluntary reading incentive program aimed at students in 3rd through 12th grade. Their “aim is to support students in their love and discovery for reading by introducing them to quality literature, to offer books that build upon historical values and the dignity of life, and to develop friendships between students based upon socialization, competition, and mutual respect” (“Mission, History & Policy Statements”). The organization provides a list of books for students to read for the school year, and the books cover a variety of topics. Many of the resources are free of charge, but a yearly membership fee of $45 includes the questions for the books on the lists. The book lists are announced in April/May, which gives students a year to read the books (they do not have to read all of them), and the lists range from 10-30 books. “A typical ‘Battle’ is a full day tournament or game...in which students’ teams earn points by answering questions about the books on the book list. The day begins with a meeting in the cafeteria, a morning snack and directions for the day. They are then assigned to a team, given a mascot, and sent to their first round of the ‘Battle.’ They play several rounds, each against a different team. At the end of the morning, points are totaled and the two teams with the most points are invited to a ‘Grand Battle’ after lunch, with the other teams as their audience. These two teams will also be given the opportunity to participate in the regional ‘Battle’ in April and the statewide ‘Battle’ also held in May or June, if regional battles have been organized by local participants in your area’ (“What is Battle of the Books”).

Book Hooks

Olga Nesi, the library coordinator for the NYC Department of Education Office of Library Services discusses the implementation of a “book hook” in schools and classrooms. These are forms that students fill out, and are “include a section in which the student is asked to write a brief ‘hook’ for the book and another section where they are asked to consider the appeal factors of the books they’ve enjoyed reading” (Nesi 6-7). This allows students to see what their peers are reading, and it also gets them to think critically about what makes the book appealing.

Book Talks

A book talk is a brief (no more than a few minutes) advertisement of a book. Book talkers want to include enticing details without giving away the ending or other major elements of the story and leave readers with a cliffhanger that makes them want to pick up the book.

Book talking resources:

Book Trailers

“Over the past couple of years, I’ve actually been doing a lot of thinking about what makes book trailers so successful - ESPECIALLY with regard to reluctant readers,and I think it has to do with lacking the ability of ‘making a movie’ in their minds” - Teresa Schauer (Chance & Lesesne 27)
“Book trailers are a visual representation of a book. In one way, book trailers are similar to a movie trailer: they are designed to interest a reader in a particular book. The particular challenge of a book trailer is converting words into images. Music and images convey mood and tone. Sometimes there are words and dialogue included; however, the book trailer is often more akin to a silent movie. Images appear, fade, and are replaced by other images” (Chance & Lesesne 27). Teresa Schauer, the district librarian for Pettus Independent School District in Texas created the Book Talks for All website (http://booktrailersforall.com) to help students, teachers, librarians, and anyone else create their own book trailers. There are a number of technological resources available for making book trailers, including Animoto, Moviemaker, Photostory, iMovie, After Effects, and Sony Vegas Movie Studio). The Book Trailers for All website currently has almost 400 trailers on their website, and all are free (“Search for Trailers”).

Book Trailer examples:

Creative Reading

“Reading is often thought of as a skill, something to be learned and practiced. But reading can also be considered a creative art, capturing the imagination of the reader in ways that result in creative thought and expression. Think of this as creative reading” (Small & Arnone 13)

Ruth V. Small and Marilyn P. Arnone, director and codirector of the Center for Digital Literacy at Syracuse University, respectively, have suggested a variety of ways the promote creative reading:

  • Fostering Creativity and Imagination – “Tapping into students’ natural curiosity is a powerful way to encourage reading for enjoyment” (13). The use of book hooks, the use of technology (such as blogs), and transforming the library space are all ways to spark creativity and get students excited about reading.
  • Assuring Confidence and Competence – as a student’s reading skills evolve, librarians and teachers can suggest higher-level reading materials on a particular area/subject the student has shown interest in. Another key element is to validate their reading choices.
  • Providing Access and Choice – It is important that students have access to a wide variety of reading materials. “School libraries can offer the full range of reading materials, from novels to graphic novels to comic books, from magazines to videos to blogs, and students can access them from the library, their classroom, or their home. Finding ways to provide access to reading materials at home not only increases the time and opportunity for students to practice and use their reading skills, but may also encourage parents to become more engaged in their children’s creative reading activities” (14). It is also important that students are able to pick books that are of particular interest to them, no matter of the writing style, the length of the book, or the subject.
  • Finally, reading should be its own reward. “Critical to the avoidance of readicide is encouraging the notion that the pleasure of reading in and of itself is its own reward – not stickers, unrelated incentives, or forced reading” (15).

Creative Reading Activities:
  • Kids as Reading Partners – pair struggling readers with older, competent readers
  • Reading Through Writing – older students (fifth- and sixth-graders) write stories about a topic they know about, which they then share with younger students (first graders). This benefits both age groups, as the older students can feel pride for their work, while younger students are motivated by older role models.
  • Reading Relay – In a group of competent and struggling readers, some are assigned different parts to read in a play, while the others watch and wait for their turn. They could be called upon at any time to switch places with one of the readers, and the activity continues until everyone has been both a reader and a listener (15).

Drop Everything and Read (D.E.A.R.)

D.E.A.R. is a nationwide program “designed to remind folks of all ages to make reading a priority activity in their lives” (HarperCollins “About”). Originally celebrated on April 12 in honor of Beverly Cleary’s birthday (she featured D.E.A.R. in Ramona Quimby, Age 8), the promotional program is now celebrated throughout the month of April. “As an organization, library, school, or bookstore, you can participate by hosting a “Drop Everything and Read” event at your location (or elsewhere) during the month of April. As an individual, you can participate by attending an event in your community or by reading at home with your children, siblings, or friends” (HarperCollins “About”). The official D.E.A.R. website (www.dropeverythingandread.com) provides a variety of resources for the program.

Other D.E.A.R. resources:

Pairing Fiction with Nonfiction

Marie Kelsey, a professor and program director of the Educational Media and Technology program at the College of St. Scholastica in Duluth, MN, recognizes that it can be hard to get younger readers interested in nonfiction. “Children will be processing information for the rest of their lives, so it is essential that their minds be engaged with nonfiction at an early age. They need to learn how to effectively read it and even enjoy it. They need to learn how to effectively read it and even enjoy it. With today’s innovative nonfiction, these are not unrealistic goals because nonfiction is as entertaining as any story” (Kelsey 36). Newer types of nonfiction, such as Eyewitness books, informational storybooks (like The Magic School Bus), and graphic nonfiction are just some of the ways to get children excited about nonfiction. Another element to promoting nonfiction is to get teachers and school librarians to collaborate so that a variety of nonfiction titles can be paired with fiction titles being studied in class.

Resources for nonfiction:

Sustained Silent Reading

Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) was first proposed in the 1960s by Lyman Hunt at the University of Vermont, and adopted by many public schools throughout the United States in the 1970s. Variations of SSR include Free Voluntary Reading (FVR), Drop Everything and Read (DEAR), Daily Independent Reading Time (DIRT), and Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading (USSR) (Siah & Kwok 169). In evaluating research and examining elements from his own experience, Gallagher believes that SSR is beneficial to students, and helps prevent readicide. He states that “SSR is actually a valuable investment in test preparation” (Gallagher 42), “SSR is necessary to allow students an opportunity to build their prior knowledge and background” (43), and “SSR provides many students with their only opportunity to develop a recreational reading habit” (44). Stephen Krashen, a researcher and professor of education at the University of Southern California, examines 51 studies that prove programs such as FVR are beneficial to students. "In 51 out of 54 comparisons (94 percent), students using FVR did as well as or better on reading tests than students given traditional skill-based reading instruction...In-school free reading programs are also effective for vocabulary development, grammar test performance, writing, and oral/aural language ability" (Krashen 2-3). Krashen's research disproves claims made by previous studies conducted by the National Reading Panel, which claim that such programs are not conclusively beneficial to readers.



Programs from Around the World


The National Year of Reading - Australia (www.love2read.org.au)

In 2012, libraries across Australia came together to promote reading and literacy. The National Year of Reading "established best practices in literacy campaigns in Australia, uniting the 1494 public libraries nationally and their 10,455 staff under one banner alongside booksellers, publishers, literacy organisations, schools, community members, politicians and like-minded commercial organisations...The campaign included 200-plus partner organisations, ambassadors and friends; 4,000 events; 12,000 online followers; 200,000 active participants; $5.6 million in in-kind support, an estimated $26 million in media coverage...It was celebrated across the country and reached people in all locations, including those in regional and remote regional communities" ("National Year of Reading 2012").

Goals for the project:
  • "for all Australians to understand the benefits of reading as a life skill and as a catalyst for wellbeing (sic)"
  • "to promote a reading culture in every home"
  • "to establish an aspirational goal of sharing a book with your child every day" (McKerracher 236)

Alongside other events, the National Year of Reading incorporated four nationwide campaigns:
  1. The Reading Hour – the idea behind this was to “share a book with your child for 10 minutes a day, an hour a week, and give them the gift of reading” and there was a national event held on August 25 (“National Year of Reading 2012 Report” Slide 12).
  2. Public Library Membership Drive – campaign to draw people into the libraries (McKerracher 238).
  3. One Country Reading – based off One Book One City, Alison Lester’s picture book Are We There Yet? was promoted across the country. “We were looking for a book that would provide us with a theme for the year, and Alison Lester’s much loved picture book describing a journey around Australia gave us a story that resonated with people in every state and territory. The original illustrations from Are We There Yet? gave us a travelling exhibition…which went to a library with gallery space in every state and territory. Whenever she could, Alison dropped by to meet families and school visitors” (“National Year of Reading 2012 Report” Slide 8).
  4. Workplace Literacy – wanting to reach out to people with low literacy rates, the program created writer-in-residence workshops at businesses in each state/territory in which people could come in to learn about writing, and were given a chance to write their own stories (Slide 15) (McKerracher 239).

EthiopiaReads - Ethiopia (www.ethiopiareads.org)

“EthiopiaReads collaborates with Ethiopian communities to build schools, plant libraries, teach teachers, boost literacy and provide youth and families with the tools to improve their lives” (“About Us”). Founded in 1998, the initiative has since built over 60 libraries and served 120,000 children throughout Ethiopia (“About Us”). They also publish multilingual books based on Ethiopia folk tales and culture, which “allows Ethiopian children to see their lives and languages reflected in the pages of books for the first time” (Doiron & Asselin 110). The program’s website provides information about the different projects and events, including their donkey mobile library, which brings books and stools to children in outlying areas for reading sessions.

Reach Out and Read - United States (www.reachoutandread.org/)

Doctors prescribe medications all the time, and with the Reach Out and Read program, they prescribe books and reading time. “Reach Out and Read’s thousands of doctors and nurses promote early literacy and school readiness to young children and their families in all 50 states. Each year, medical providers at the nearly 5,000 Reach Out and Read program sites nationwide distribute 6.5 million books to children and invaluable literacy advice to parents” (“Advancing Literacy”). Founded in 1989, the program has three elements:
  1. “pediatricians and nurses are trained to provide early literacy guides to parents during their well-child check-ups”
  2. “during each well-child visit from infancy to 5 years of age, the doctor or nurse provides a developmentally appropriate book for the child to take home, with the goal of building a home library of 10 books prior to the child entering kindergarten”
  3. "the doctor or nurse provides the parent with a formal 'prescription' to read 10 minutes every day with their child” (Billings 82-83).

In September 2013, the program was awarded the David M. Rubenstein Prize, the top literary award from the Library of Congress for its reading promotion outreach and success (Forman).

WorldReaders (www.worldreaders.org)

WorldReaders strives to bring readers together using social networks. “The goal of this project was to harness the intrinsic interest young people have in using online social networks and develop an engaging and motivating virtual environment for readers around the world to share and discuss their reading interests” (“About”). In designing this project, Ray Doiron, from the University of Prince Edward Island in Canada had two questions that guided the development of the social network:
  1. “How can an online social network (SN) effectively support the development of positive reading habits among upper elementary and secondary students?
  2. What aspects of the online SN (images, text, sound, video, and interactive tools) are most effective in encouraging student participation and communication?” (Doiron 3).

Doiron started the project in 2008 in conjunction with two schools on Prince Edward Island, where students tested the social network and teachers and librarians had input on the project before it was launched internationally (3). Unlike traditional social network sites, students must go through a number of procedures in order to join, which works to protect their identity (5). Once their membership to the site is approved, members create a profile on their MyPage, which includes their country and information on reading interests and habits. Members are then able to share and connect with other members though the use of photos, videos, music, and blogs (7-9).

The supporting website at WorldReaders.org provides suggestions for books, as well as resources for each continent. Unlike the social network site (only for student use), this site can be utilized by teachers, librarians, and parents.

Through this site, Doiron works to show that people coming together from all over the world are what will bring about a change in reading practices and beliefs. “One event, one contest, one celebration or one promotional activity will not create a culture for reading; many people working together on a diverse set of activities is what will move a community to become one where reading is valued, resources for reading [are] readily available and a community-based, community-wide approach is encouraged” (Doiron & Asselin 113). This kind of interaction and support is important in instilling an enjoyment of reading in today’s youth.



Resources


“About.” WorldReaders 2013. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. http://worldreaders.org/about/

“Advancing Literacy.” Reach Out and Read 2013. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. www.reachoutandread.org/

Chance, Rosemary & Teri Lesesne. “Rethinking Reading Promotion: Old School Meets Technology.” Teacher Librarian 39.5 (June 2012): 26-28. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.

Doiron, Ray. "World Readers: Young Readers Reading the World. Teacher-Librarians Using Social Networking to Promote Reading Interests." Web. 22 Nov. 2013. www.bcpss.org/bbcswebdav/institution/C.S.Tech/Academic/Course.Offerings/TSSv9.1/ReferenceMaterial/ProQuest_1968710511.young%20readers%20social%20networking.pdf

Doiron, Ray & Marlene Asselin. “Promoting a Culture for Reading in a Diverse World.” IFLA Journal 37.2 (2011): 109-117. Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.

Forman, Judith. “Library of Congress Awards Reach Out and Read Highest Literacy Award.” Reach Out and Read 2013. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. www.reachoutandread.org/FileRepository/2013_Rubenstein_Prize_Release.pdf

Gallagher, Kelly. Readicide: How Schools are Killing Reading and What You Can Do About It. Portland: Stenhouse Publishers, 2009. Print.

Gander, Lawrence. “Put an End to the Middle School Reading Decline.” Library Media Connection 32.3 (2013): 20-23. Business Source Complete. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.

HarperCollins Publishers. “About D.E.A.R.” Drop Everything and Read 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. http://dropeverythingandread.com/NationalDEARday.html

Kelsey, Marie. “Compel Students to Read with Compelling Nonfiction.” Knowledge Quest 39.4 (2011): 34-39. ERIC. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.

Krashen, Stephen D. The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research, Second Edition. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2004. Print.

McKerracher, Sue, et al. “The National Year of Reading 2012: An Australian Campaign to Promote Books, Reading and Literacy.” Bibliothek Forschung Und Praxis 37.2 (2013): 236-240. Library, Information Science & Technology Abstrats. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.

Miller, Donalyn. The Book Whisperer. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009. Print.

“Mission, History & Policy Statements.” America’s Battle of the Books. 2014. Web. 12 Nov. 2013. http://www.battleofthebooks.org/mission/

“National Year of Reading 2012.” Love2Read. 2013. Web. 12 Nov. 2013. http://www.love2read.org.au/nyr-2012.cfm

“National Year of Reading 2012 Report.” Love2Read. Web/PowerPoint. 12 Nov. 2013. http://www.love2read.org.au/NYRreport.pdf

Nesi, Olga M. “A Vocabulary to Discuss Reading: Beyond ‘Interesting.’” School Library Monthly 28.6 (March 2012): 5-8. ERIC. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.

“Search for Trailers.” Book Trailers for All. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2013. http://booktrailersforallsearch.com/

Siah, Poh-Chue & Wai-Ling Kwok. “The Value of Reading and the Effectiveness of Sustained Silent Reading.” Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas 83.5 (2010): 168-174. ERIC. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.

Small, Ruth V. & Marilyn P. Arnone. “Creative Reading: The Antidote to Readicide.” Knowledge Quest 39.4 (2011): 12-15. ERIC. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.

“What is Battle of the Books.” America’s Battle of the Books. 2014. Web. 12 Nov. 2013. http://www.battleofthebooks.org/what/
Gander, Lawrence. “Put an End to the Middle School Reading Decline.” Library Media Connection 32.3 (2013): 20-23. Business Source Complete. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.


This practice needs to be re-evaluated if we want to foster reading in our children and teach them life skills more valuable than test-taking.