“The goal of inquiry-based teaching is that all students develop an “inquiry stance” with more emphasis on asking good questions than finding the answers.” (Cochran-Smith and Lytle 1999 in Huwe)


Inquiry-based learning begins with a question. The student approaches learning by trying to find an answer to a question rather than being told the facts up front. This involves exploration, discussion, questioning, and testing. It is a style of learning that can be done at any level, and is designed to work well with real-world learning. Outside of school, many people approach learning with a specific question in mind, usually based on their passions, curiosities, interests, or wonders, and then they research to find the answer (Jansen, 2011, p. 11).

Whether the question be about filling out taxes, fixing up a home, or learning a new skill, most things learned in life are not learned in a lecture setting; they are usually learned through active learning, consisting of questioning, researching, and acting. To make learning more like the real world, some schools, classrooms, and libraries are instituting inquiry-based learning. Often, this form of learning invites students to "go beyond the traditional report and PowerPoint presentation"; it invites them to think outside of the box, process information, build, higher order thinking skills, and engage in transliteracy, "the ability to read and write and share information across a variety of platforms" (Coatney, 2013; Rheingold cited in Jansen, 2011, p. 12).

How We Learn

To understand why inquiry-based learning is effective, it is helpful to have background in current theories and models about how we learn. It must also be noted that inquiry-based learning is nonlinear, in that there is no one specific process to follow; instead, a learner can take a variety of approaches - as is expressed through different theories and models (Jansen, 2011, p. 11).

Cognitive Learning Theory

Cognitive learning theorists argue that meaningful processing of information requires the learner to take an active part in the learning process. Learners need to actively work with the knowledge that is being acquired. In order for information to be meaningful, a learner must be able to make connections between the new knowledge and existing knowledge. Through this manner, students are building upon past knowledge and using that knowledge to make sense of something new, which leads to effective learning (Johnson, 2005, p. 177). An example of cognitive learning theory is video game playing, for a player develops a series of skills early on during the game and then is continually challenged to build upon those skills. As the game progresses, those skills must be adapted so the player can complete increasingly challenging tasks.

An additional element of Cognitive Learning is to include learner reflection in the process. The reflection process allows learners to think about only what they learn, but how they learn. Thinking about one’s own thought process is called “metacognition” (Svinicki, p. 34).

Constructivist Learning Theory

Constructivists assert that knowledge is constructed by each learner individually: “By having experiences and reflecting on those experiences, individuals construct their own understandings of the world; learning is the process of adjusting and restructuring mental models to accommodate new experiences. Constructivists argue that teaching should focus on preparing the learner to solve problems in ambiguous situations” (Woodard & Hinchliffe, p. 16).

Svinicki explains that according to Constructivism, learners construct their “understanding of the world” based on their unique experiences. Therefore, each learners’ “construction of the world” is unique (p. 13-14).

Constructivism places the learner at the heart of the process: “It is the students who put forth the effort to come up with their own answers. From a cognitive perspective, those answers will be more meaningful because they draw on the learners’ own experiences and world views. They are more likely to be deep processed answers, because it is the learners who have put forth the effort to identify key ideas and make key connections.” (Svinicki p. 35-36).

Inquiry Models

Stripling Inquiry Model

Barbara Stripling's definition of inquiry-based learning emphasizes that aside from requiring active engagement, "inquiry places students at the heart of learning by empowering them to follow their sense of wonder into new discoveries and insights about the way the world works" (2003, 4). Her model breaks inquiry-based learning into six phases (it should be noted that these phases are not necessarily linear, but can be interchangeable or revisited depending on the student and the inquiry.

Adapted from Jansen (2011)

  1. Connect ("observe, experience, connect a subject to self and previous knowledge")
  2. Wonder ("predict, develop questions and hypotheses")
  3. Investigate ("find and evaluate information to answer questions, test hypotheses")
  4. Construct ("draw conclusions, arrive at new understandings")
  5. Express ("apply understandings to a new context, share learning with others")
  6. Reflect ("examine one's own learning and ask new questions") (Stripling 2003, 8)

Inquiry-Based Learning for Literacy and Information Literacy

Inquiry-based learning, with its emphasis on critical thinking, fits naturally with literacy and information literacy instruction. The link between inquiry-based learning and various literacy skills has been well-developed in the literature.

Inquiry-based learning is successful at teaching all ages of students, and so is well-suited for teaching literacy skills. Wray (2006) collaborated with teachers to use inquiry-based learning to assist several classes of 6-year-olds in learning about and exploring non-fiction texts. For example, one skill outcome of the project was the use of a book’s index to determine if a book contains information on a given topic, and on what page that information can be found. This was initially demonstrated by the teacher who explained her thought process out-loud while searching the index in order to also provide a cognitive model for the students. The study includes several transcript excerpts that clearly demonstrate the students have mastered index usage (Wray).

A study at a Hong Kong elementary school that utilizes inquiry-based learning shows both improved reading ability and attitude toward reading even when literacy is not one of the target outcomes (Chu). Fourth grade students exposed to two units of inquiry-based learning, one on “The Earth” and one on the “History of Hong Kong and Mainland China,” were tested for reading ability and given surveys on reading preferences before and after the two units. Reading scores improved for both research and pleasure reading, and attitudes towards reading and reading self-confidence also improved (Chu).

Discussions of inquiry-based learning targeting information literacy skills have primarily happened at the post-secondary level where such skills are a major concern. Inquiry-based learning projects offer opportunities for teacher librarians to facilitate student exploration of the research process. Such projects can be developed with information literacy outcomes and assessment as the primary focus, but one key to engaging students is to make the project relevant to other courses or interests (Macklin).

One excellent resource available on the process of implementing inquiry-based learning programs within schools is Guided Inquiry Design: A Framework for Inquiry at Your School by Carol Kuhlthau.

Inquiry-Based Learning in the Classroom

Incorporating Web 2.0 Technologies with Inquiry-Based Learning

Pam Berger describes Stripling's Inquiry Model and how it relates to emerging web 2.0 technologies in "Student Inquiry and Web 2.0": "Technology and, in particular, Web 2.0 tools and services can be used throughout the inquiry process to support the appropriate thinking skills. The key is to focus on student learning, not the Web 2.0 technology" (17). Active participation and collaboration, two of the key principles of good teaching and learning--are supported in many ways by Web 2.0 technologies. Today's students are more familiar than ever with emerging technologies. Their comfort level with web applications is high; therefore, engaging them in deep learning and critical thinking via web technologies seems to be a logical trend as educators, researchers, and information literacy specialists (including youth and school librarians, of course) look to the future of inquiry-based learning. Berger and Stripling outline the types of Web 2.0 technologies that can assist each of the six stages of Stripling's Inquiry Model. The chart below is adapted from Berger's 2010 article, and gives examples of activities librarians may try in both public and school settings to promote both inquiry based learning and student reflection on the critical thinking, information seeking and knowledge assimilating processes spawned from a true inquiry-based information query (16):

The Phases of Inquiry
Teaching & Learning Strategies
Technology Tools/Resources
research journals/learning logs,
searching process, webbing, pre-reading,
engagement/exploration activities
EduBlogs, Ning, Wikispaces,
Skype, Google Drive, Zoho Suite,
Google Earth, Flickr
class brainstorming, peer questioning,
question stems, anticipation guide
Google Drive templates,
Mindmeister, Bubbl.us
find information, note taking,
connections to prior knowledge,
guided practice, organize sources
Google, Clusty, Ask,
Zoho Notebook,
Wikispaces, Jing, Voicethread,
Diclious, SimplyBox, Netvibes,
Pageflakes, TaDaList
charting, mindmapping, composing,
questioning (teacher-to-student,
student-to-teacher, student-to-student)
PBWorks, Zoho Suite,
E-mail, instant messenger,
Skype, Twitter, Creatly, Gliffy
Use of rubric w/criteria,
select format based on needs of topic/audience,
teach and peer conferencing
Voicethread, Glogster, Podcast,
Animoto, TeacherTube,
Skype, Blogs, Ning
Feedback from teachers and peers,
reflection log (I used to think/Now I know)
EduBlogs, Wikispaces,
E-mail, Google Drive, Podcast

Project-Based Learning
A method to inquiry-based research is Project-Based Learning (PBL). PBL requires in-depth exploration of issues, themes or problems. With PBL, “there are no quick and easy answers or definite solutions.” (Harada et al., 14). PBL facilitates inquiry-based learning by transforming curriculum from knowledge transfer of facts and figures, to deep understanding. Students choose a topic that is personally relevant to them, thereby taking ownership of their learning. To investigate their chosen topic, students use “essential tools and skills,” such as technology, to find, locate, and produce information. In line with the constructivist approach, the instructor takes on a facilitative role while the learner takes ownership of the learning. The teacher-librarian guides the students in their inquiry, and helps them develop the skills to be “critical consumers of information and discriminating producers of newly acquired knowledge.” (Harada et al., p. 15). The result of this inquiry-based approach is that students are engaged in personally-meaningful experiences, which build on their unique knowledge and strengths.

Other examples of classroom activities that incorporate inquiry-based learning in the curriculum

  • One strategy that has been used is teaming up with a local museum and students visit the museum at regular intervals. “The children’s museum setting was a science museum with the philosophy that children learn best by doing—touching, handling, assembling, disassembling, and using. The aim of this laboratory setting was to clarify abstract concepts as the children experience them firsthand, with their hands. The exhibits helped to bring concepts in science, technology, natural history, mathematics, history, art, and world cultures to life.” (Rapp) Through going to the museum on a regular basis, the students learned to work together as they learned new concepts in several different areas of study. This type of learning needs to be structured with a specific goal in mind, but it can be a great learning experience outside the classroom.
  • Another strategy used literature to analyze world problems and discuss the issues using the literature as a jumping off point on the discussion of real life. “Authors do not write books for readers to answer comprehension questions or to do “exercises” to learn “reading skills.” They write books because they want the reader to enjoy a good story and—not always but true for the books I’ll be writing about here—they have some important ideas they want readers to think about." (Wolk)
  • In one social studies classroom, a teacher asked the students to research what they would go see as a tourist in Philadelphia, and write an explanation of why that site was important. (Memory)
  • Students analyzed posters used during WWII on the American home front to analyze what are requirements of being a citizen of a country and how does volunteering show civic responsibility. (Smithsonian)
  • Students prepare a presentation to convince the principal and the school board to change a school policy such as closed campus during lunch, using/not having uniforms, earlier/later school start time, etc.

Strategies for Implementing Inquiry-based Learning in Schools

Coatley (2013) summarized the responses of major thinkers in the school library field in her report of the Inquiry Summit held in Anaheim, California in June 2012. These experts suggested the following recommendations for implementing inquiry-based learning in school settings:

  • Align with the Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics (CCSS)
  • Show teachers how inquiry-based learning can tie in with instructional needs through integrated instruction
    • Making learning more practical, such as through hands-on projects/field trips/interviews instead of using textbooks
  • Reach out beyond library-based organizations - to national education organizations
  • Encourage cross-educational conversations between K-12-level educators and university-level educators
    • Emphasize learning across all educational levels in an effort to demonstrate that learning is a continual lifelong process; higher levels of education must also build upon the skills acquired and developed in K-12
  • Take advantage of learning environments, which are conductive to inquiry
  • Encourage teachers to use inquiry in terms of their own learning and teaching style and emphasize that you do not have to know all the answers beforehand
    • Guiding students to ask any question that comes into their minds
  • Prioritize real-life skills, which will be utilized in the workforce
    • Critical thinking and problem-solving skills, not memorizing or test-taking skills

Inquiry-Based Learning in Libraries

James Marcum (2009) explained, "The library has always been a place where people go to 'learn'" (p. 358). Within his article "Center for New Learning: The Library as Inquiry Learning System: Defining the Issues," he describes the library as a discovery center," a place where individuals go to seek knowledge for their own purposes (p. 359). Unlike a classroom setting, individuals go the library on their own accord to answer their own questions using the available resources. Learning is thus unpredictable in a sense, given that the answers to their questions will "emerge" as a result of their research (as opposed to someone else, like a teacher, who determines how information is learned).

Since inquiry based-learning is "partipative in practice and constructivist in theory," librarians must emphasize on assisting students with their needs and not imposing any specific "disciplinary agenda" on them (Marcum, 2009, p. 361). Librarians should serve as guides who assist library users navigate through the gateways of information and be individuals who promote different media resources (books, web resources, databases).

Inquiry and The Common Core

Schools across the country are integrating the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics. According to the Common Core State Standards Initiative website, www.corestandards.org, “the Common Core State Standards are designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers” (CCSS, 2012).

What has changed?

Deep investigation: Through the Common Core standards, students are provided inquiry-based learning opportunities to think critically about the material presented, investigate claims, develop positions and find evidence to support those positions, as well as compare, contrast, build upon and reflect on the information presented in class.

Examples of inquiry-based Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts include:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.2.7 Explain how specific images (e.ge. a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify text.
CCSS.ELA – Literacy.RI.2.9 Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

Examples of inquiry-based Common Core State Standards for Mathematics include:
CCSS.Math.Content.5.NBT.A.2 Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10.
CCSS.Math.Content.5.NBT.A.3b Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of the comparison.

Instructional Approach: To meet standards set out by Common Core, educators are shelving prescriptive instructional methods and multiple-choice assessment tools and are adopting inquiry-based approaches in their classrooms. An inquiry-based approach utilizes what Andrew Miller of ASCD calls the Inquiry Cycle.

external image circle.gif

Through the inquiry cycle, questions are asked, either by the teacher or the student, and then students and teachers work together to investigate the question. As information is gathered, students synthesize it with their previous knowledge to create new knowledge. Students then share and discuss their new ideas, and then reflect on what they’ve learned. Upon reflection, new questions may arise, and the cycle begins again (Miller, 2012).

What is still to come?

As school districts, educators, parents and students continue to adapt to the new Common Core standards in math and language arts, revised standards in science and social studies are still being reviewed and revised. The Next Generation Science standards emphasize inquiry-based learning methods in science instruction.
Examples of inquiry-based Next Generation Science standards include:
2—LS2-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to determine if plants need sunlight and water to grow.
2-LS2-2. Develop a simple model that mimics the function of an animal in dispersing seeds or pollinating plants.
For more information on the Next Generation Science standards, go to www.nextgenscience.org.

The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards were just recently released. More information about these standards can be found at www.socialstudies.org.

Both the science and social studies sets of standards are written with CCSS Math and Language arts standards embedded within them, so as to create a fully integrated, robust curriculum (Cappiello and Zarnowski, 2013).

Inquiry-Based Learning and Students with Special Needs

When the phrase “special needs” comes up, our thoughts often jump to students with some kind of disability, whether mental or physical. However, groups such as students from other countries and cultures or gifted students have just as many diverse needs as those with disabilities. In fact, the argument could even be made that no student is "average" and has his or her own set of special needs, strengths and weaknesses. While restraints on time and material resources make it impossible for educators to tailor every lesson to each student individually, inquiry-based teaching methods have been shown to be more effective and enjoyable for students all across the spectrum. This type of instruction offers important benefits specifically to students with special needs.

Librarians are uniquely positioned to facilitate inquiry-based learning for special needs students:

One of a school librarian's main purposes is to support teachers and classes with library materials, and so he or she can choose to make it a priority to take time to research and pull specific materials for students with special needs. The librarian's job is to make as many resources as possible available to every student, and so must think about the different needs of students in the information seeking process, which inherently involves inquiry.
  • School librarians teach students how to engage with inquiry, how to access and evaluate information from multiple diverse sources, and how to use information to create new content in multiple formats (Krueger & Stefanich, 2011).
  • The school librarian serves a critical role in providing access to authoritative background information and in mediating between inquirers and divergent sources on which to build new knowledge(Krueger & Stefanich, 2011).
The use of the library and its materials is, in itself, an act of inquiry. There is always a reason, or context, behind searching for information in the library. One must actively search for materials and information, rather than be handed them. Once materials are located, it is necessary to use critical thinking and evaluative skills to determine whether or not they fulfill the requirements of the search. A librarian's focus on the process of discovery demand skills and knowledge that facilitate an environment of inquiry-based learning, especially for students with special needs (Krueger & Stefanich, 2011):
  • in-depth knowledge of the recommendation and use of materials with multiple levels and formats
    • below, at, and above the average reading level
    • information presented in multiple sensory formats (sight, sound, touch)
  • in-depth knowledge of most current assistive technology
    • speech recognition software
    • text to audio, text to Braille, large print
    • writing tools

Inquiry and Multicultural Learners

One of the most valuable aspects of inquiry-based learning is the way it allows students to connect their academic work and their lives outside of school; it does so by asking them to explore questions and issues which truly matter to them. When students feel as if they have little or no say in what they are learning and why, it leads to frustration for any student but can be especially bad for those who feel culturally or linguistically separate. Relevancy in school work is of the utmost importance: “Students who drop out (of high school) claim that the curriculum is disconnected from real life and that their schools are impersonal systems where no one really cares about them (Wagner 2002). Over half of these students are disadvantaged minorities of color” (Harada et al., p. 14). When a librarian-teacher takes on a facilitator role, rather than a transmitter of knowledge, learning becomes relevant and personal to each learner.
  • Students learning English as a second language showed improvements in multiple subject areas as a result of an inquiry-based learning environment: “Researchers concluded that inquiry-based science lessons are of particular benefit to ELLs because the hands-on activities allow learners to construct context, develop positive attitudes toward learning, and engage in authentic conversation with peers” (Amaral, Garrison & Kentschy, 2002).
  • Navajo students in Arizona struggled with class participation because of cultural ideas about what they saw as “showing off” when asked to participate in class-wide discussion. When teachers “engaged collaborative peer groups in inquiry projects rather than relying on whole-group lecture and discussion, they saw significant gains in student participation levels and greater student interest in connecting content to the social, economic and cultural realities of their society” (McCarty, et al., 1991).

(for more information, see Non-native Speakers of English)

Inquiry and Learners with Disabilities

Krueger & Stefanich (2011) touch on the reasons why educators can be hesitant to implement inquiry-based learning with students with disabilities, explaining that “inquiry-based library research is often discredited for special needs learners because teachers fear inquiry will overwhelm learners who struggle with organizational skills and focusing, and who may appear to lack prior knowledge of topics.” However, they go on to say that these students are the ones “most in need of experiencing how drawing from multiple sources enhances concept formation” (Krueger, 2011).
  • Inquiry-based exploration affords students the chance to decide how they go about understanding concepts which may have been hard to grasp in the context of someone else's explanation. Through the process of inquiry, the learner essentially designs his or her own way of discovering the information. This is especially important with students with disabilities because there may be a method that works for them that no one else would have thought of: “hands-on/minds-on activities, and personally relevant topics, are critical for engaging learners with special needs in topics of science. Concrete experiences with personally relevant science topics, from petunias to pet, are critical for students who have difficulty with abstract concepts” (Melber, 2004).
  • “When authentic, inquiry based science experiences are incorporated into the special education classroom, these experiences build skills that support all other academic areas...inquiry-based science relies on critical thinking which supports academic learning and the development of basic life-skills" (Melber, 2004).
  • “when students were taught by experiential, more indirect methods, they learned more and remembered more than they were taught by more direct instructional methods. The research also revealed that hands-on science activities were greatly favored over textbook activities by students who had experienced both” (Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1993).

Inquiry and Gifted Learners

An often forgotten group of "special needs" students is that of the gifted learner. Being "gifted" intellectually is seen as a positive thing in our society, something to be praised rather than fixed, and so we believe that these students don't need extra help (perhaps just extra homework); this could translate to thinking they don't need help at all and that they will be low maintenance members of the classroom. Educators may assume that because these students are advanced academically that they are advanced in every aspect of their lives. However, many times it is actually exactly the opposite, and the skills gifted students have academically, they sorely lack socially.
  • An inquiry-based learning environment (in this case at a museum) was shown to have a positive effect on not only students with learning, mental, and physical disabilities, but also on an academically gifted student who was socially challenged. The student was able to "further his knowledge and to develop his cooperative learning skills. The exhibits in the museum were challenging and interesting to Connor. The excitement that he felt for the experience was a common thread he held with his peers, providing him with the opportunity and desire to work and play alongside them” (Rapp, 2005).
  • In the classroom, he always chose to work alone, completing assignments and projects his way. At the museum, even as early as the first field trip, changes were observed. Connor was heard calling to many other students to come use exhibits with him and to complete activities with him” (Rapp, 2005).

Inquiry Based Learning and the School Library Media Specialist

Barbara Stripling wrote an article describing how the School Library Media Specialist can assist the teacher using inquiry based learning. As she describes,“The library media specialist and classroom teachers must support each other because inquiry takes more time, the path may be unpredictable, the teacher is not always in control, students need a lot of support throughout the process, students need resources beyond the classroom on an unpredictable variety of subjects, and amid all the complexities, students must be surrounded by a safe and well-organized learning environment.”
Her suggestions include:
  • Help restructure the curriculum so that inquiry and problem solving are integrated into all subject areas.
  • Foster connections across curriculum areas, a focus on broad concepts instead of isolated facts, and the true blending of content and process.
  • Incorporate the American Association for School Librarians (AASL) Standards for the 21st-Century Learner.
  • Establish a learner-centered environment by gradually releasing responsibility to the students.
  • Integrate the teaching of habits of mind (Audet and Jordan 2005, 89-90) with inquiry and communication skills to foster both active and reflective learning.
  • Enhance students’ effectiveness in learning when they pay attention to the learning environment of the library and attend to four main areas that comprise a climate that fosters inquiry (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking 1999, 121)
  • Learners’ skills, attitudes, prior knowledge, interests.
  • Knowledge formation through connections among ideas, focus on big concepts and intriguing questions, integration of skills and dispositions.
  • Assessment by both teacher and student of process and content of learning.
  • Community of learners that surround the learning experiences with sharing, interchange of ideas.
  • Scaffold and support students through the difficult process of inquiry, but also challenge superficial ideas and uncritical acceptance of evidence if students are to reach as high as they can in their learning (Donham 2001, 3).
  • Integrate and implement AASL's (American Association of School Librarians) Standards for the 21st-Century Learner. (Stripling)

Challenges of Inquiry-Based Learning

Inquiry Learning emphasizes deep understanding of conceptual knowledge and process-based skills to support a lifelong ability to learn. Standardized tests measure content knowledge.
Thom Markham discusses the challenges of assessing inquiry-based learning in his blog:
“Inquiry Learning Vs. Standardized Content: Can They Coexist?"

Unfortunately, many teachers and administrators were not taught to teach with an inquiry-centered approach, and the "whole educational system is arranged politically and structurally to support other approaches" (Coatney, 2013, p. 7). One example of the latter case is the notorious No Child Left Behind act, which mandates that each school assess its students' performance by way of a standardized test in order to received federal funding. Some teachers are often pressured to teach by preparing their students for these tests, which could possibly eliminate the opportunity for inquiry-based learning.

Online Resources

"Teach21 Inquiry Based Lesson Plans." West Virginia Department of Education.
---Website that has different lesson plans for grades K-6 in math and science, mostly science, that uses inquiry based learning.

"Teaching Tips: Inquiry-Based Learning." University of Missouri.
---Page containing several links to different websites about inquiry based learning and how it has been used in different classrooms.

"Smithsonian Lesson Plans." Smithsonian Education.
---This page has detailed lesson plans for grade K-12 that teach using inquiry-based learning using images of items found in the Smithsonian.

Teaching English with Technology
---Website with lesson plans that have ideas on how to use technology like wikis, blogs, google docs and social bookmarking to teach English concepts and writing.

American Association of School Librarians Standards for the 21st-Century Learner
--Offers vision for teaching and learning to both guide and beckon our profession as education leaders

Top 25 Websites for Teaching and Learning
--The Best Websites for Teaching and Learning honors websites, tools, and resources of exceptional value to inquiry-based teaching and learning as embodied in the American Association of School Librarians' Standards for the 21st-Century Learner.


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Woodard, Beth, and Lisa J. Hinchliffe. "Instruction." Reference and Information Services: An Introduction. By Richard E. Bopp and Linda C. Smith. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2001. N. pag. Print.

Wray, D. (2006). An inquiry-based approach to library instruction. School Libraries Worldwide, 12(2), 16-28.

Common Core Sources:

Cappiello, Mary Ann, and Myra Zarnowski. Inquiry and Integration Across the Curriculum - On Common Core. School Library Journal. October 8, 2013.

National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers. Common Core State Standards. Washington, D.C., 2010.

Common Core State Standards Initiative, English Language Arts Teachers’ Perspective, Peoria School District 150. Video. 2013.