‍Introduction: Brief History of Library Storytimes


In the late 1940s and early 1950s, libraries in the United States began offering storytimes for children, before the principles of early literacy had even been articulated. These story hours often featured sing-alongs and clapping along to rhythms, in addition to the sharing of picture books and stories. Without the benefit of present-day emergent literacy research, librarians selected stories that featured repetition and rhyme, noticing their "obviously engaging effect on children"[1] Storytimes of the past were often more rigid in structure than contemporary programs. For example, storytimes in the early 1980s were generally restricted to preschoolers, with pre-registration required, and parents may not have been allowed in the room.[2]

Storytimes have continued to be a mainstay of library programming for children. Today, family interaction is an essential component, and storytimes exist for newborns, toddlers, preschoolers, and families. The wide variety of program availability serves several functions, including, "foster a love of books and literacy in children, to give families a welcome and positive library experience, and to model and articulate good reading techniques to parents and caregivers." [3]

Specifically designed to meet early literacy goals, the skills and experiences given to today's storytime attendees helps prepare children for school and develops reading readiness. This page will summarize the research behind early literacy, discuss and justify the various components of storytime, give an overview of storytime planning and execution, and offer suggestions for further reading and storytime resources.

The Importance of Storytimes for Early Literacy Development


What is Early Literacy?

  • According to the National Institute of Child Health and Development, early literacy is defined as "what children know about reading and writing before they actually learn to read and write. To clarify, early literacy is not the teaching of reading. It is building a foundation for reading so that when children are taught to read, they are ready."[4] According to Albright, Delecki, and Hinkle, "[d]ialogic reading is one of the most important methods practiced in presenting the early literacy skills and standards to children in storytimes...Dialogical reading is a way of reading with a child that encourages conversation". [5] To promote this dialogical reading ask questions related to illustrations and encourage predictions.

Every Child Ready to Read @ Your Library

In 2000, the Public Library Association began work on the Early Literacy Project, in conjunction with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), a division of the National Institutes of Health. The project led to the creation of Every Child Ready to Read @ Your Library (ECRR), and the current model, Every Child Ready to Read @ Your Library 2, designed to develop model library programs, such as storytimes, that incorporated facets of early literacy.

The six skills identified by the ECRR program:
  1. Print motivation: a child's interest in and enjoyment of books
  2. Phonological awareness: the ability to hear and play with smaller sounds in words
  3. Vocabulary: knowing the names of things
  4. Narrative skills: the ability to describe things and events ad to tell stories
  5. Print awareness: noticing print, knowing how to handle a book, and understanding how to follow the written words on a page
  6. Letter knowledge: knowing that letters are different from each other,the same letter can look different, and that each letter has a name and is related to sounds [6]


The revised skills of ECRR 2:
  1. Print awareness
  2. Print motivation
  3. Language knowledge (includes letter knowledge, vocabulary, and phonological awareness)
  4. Narrative skills and comprehension
  5. Oral language skills and knowledge[7]

What does the research literature say about early literacy?

Literature Review

In 2010, Every Child Ready to Read @ Your Library completed a literature review in preparation for the re-release of the ECRR program. The following list presents highlights of the literature review, as related to the cognitive development of literacy:

  • For pre-reading children, verbal abilities serve as the single best predictor of later reading achievement (Scarborough, 2001)
  • Word knowledge is not just developed through passive exposure to language, but also specifically designed knowledge-building language experiences that involve children (Neuman, 2001)
  • Vocabulary size and rate of acquisition is strongly tied to the ability to make sound distinctions between words, i.e. phonological awareness (Goswami, 2001)
  • Vocabulary development in younger children plays a critical role in the later development of reading comprehension (Dickenson et al., 2003)
  • Discriminating language units, such as words and phonemes, is strongly linked to later success in reading (National Reading Panel Report, 2000)
  • Children gain sensitivity to rhyme before phonemes and syllables (Lonigan, 2006; Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998)
  • Knowledge of the letters of the alphabet is a strong predictor of both short- and long- term reading success (Bond & Dykstra, 1967; Chall, 1990); and knowing letter names facilitates the ability to remember the sounds associated with a particular letter (Ehri, 1979)

How do library storytimes foster the development of early literacy?

Successful, skilled reading depends not only on these foundational skills, but on a consciously-acquired base of content knowledge[8] . The exposure to books can foster children's curiosity and desire to gain knowledge. Books give children a base knowledge about the world and provide inspiration a child needs to make up his or her own thoughts-- as David McKay Wilson puts it, "[a child] can't pretend [to be] a space traveler or ballerina unless she knows what an astronaut or dancer does"![9] Children exposed to many stories internalize the format and develop expectations for how stories are told. Familiarity with the format enhances children's understanding, which means knowledge becomes easier to access. The more knowledge networks a child has, the richer the knowledge base will be-- and subsequent learning and remembering will be easier.[10] High-quality early childhood programs feature a content-rich curriculum that facilitates imaginative play, supports social and emotional development, and actively builds verbal reasoning skills.[11] Librarians serving children have the opportunity to play an important role in the literacy development of their patrons by exposing children to books, stories, songs, and rhymes at library storytimes, and also demonstrating to parents how to facilitate this literacy development at home. Storytimes offer children an environment with access to high-quality literacy tools, books, and play materials, and in such environments, children read more, and as a result improve literacy achievement.[12] Librarian-led discussions during storytimes, especially discussions that engage children by asking questions and making predictions, aid in problem-solving and vocabulary growth.[13]


Components of Storytimes


Along with the reading aloud of stories, library storytimes might feature one or more of the following[14] :
  • Songs
  • Fingerplays
  • Flannel board presentations
  • Puppets
  • Nursery rhymes
  • Crafts
  • Poetry

Preparation and Evaluation‍‍‍‍‍‍


Room Setup

Whether the library has a dedicated children's programming area or the storytime will be taking place in a library meeting room, several steps to prepare the area will go a long way in making the storytime run as smoothly as possible. Have children sit on the floor, perhaps in a semi-circle on a special children's carpet if the library owns one. Babies and toddlers will be in caregiver's laps-- if parents of preschool children want to sit on the floor with their child, have them sit off to the side of the carpet so as not to block the view of anyone behind them. The librarian running the storytime should have a chair, so everyone in the audience can see, and be positioned in such a way that there will be limited distractions going on behind them. Have chairs available for parents and caregivers who wish to sit in the back of the room. Try to position the audience so that the main entry to the room is at their backs, so latecomers will be less of a distraction.

Scheduling

Consider the age of the intended audience when scheduling storytimes. Mornings might be best for young children, before they are hungry for lunch or ready for a nap. A storytime designed for older children or preschoolers who no longer take naps, however, could be held in the early afternoon. Of course, not all families are able to come to the library on weekdays during the day. Another scheduling option could be a weeknight evening storytime, or a Saturday morning.

Planning

Always choose books that you enjoy. Children and parents will both be able to tell if you are not enjoying the reading and in turn, they will also enjoy it less. Finding time to prepare for storytimes may be difficult, but advance preparation will help the program run smoothly and offer the best chance for success. Practice reading aloud from the chosen books, to become familiar with the story and find the natural reading rhythm. Don't be afraid to repeat songs from session to session-- children enjoy repeating songs, and doing so gives parents the chance to learn them, too. If the storytime features a craft, consider how much advance prep will be necessary. Perhaps copies of a coloring sheet need to be made and shapes might need to be cut out in advance for young children, etc.

Publicity

As with any other library program, advertising storytimes will increase the chance for success. Advertising within the library is a simple way to reach families who already use the library But to reach other families in the community, advertisements will be necessary. Consider creating flyers, posters, or other handouts to publicize the library's literacy programming. Post flyers and posters in places where families go: restaurants, toy and clothing stores, recreational facilities, etc. You may also want to ask local community partners who also work with children to display promotional materials for the library, such as preschools, daycare centers, children's museums, and pediatricians' offices. If the library is in a community where many residents speak languages other than English, you will want to make promotional materials bilingual to reach a larger number of patrons.

Evaluating Storytime Programs

There are four questions you should ask yourself in order to evaluate the success of your program:
  1. How good is the program? (quality)
  2. What good does it do? (benefit)
  3. How well is it managed? (management)
  4. How are people different because of it? (outcome)
In order to assess these measures, look for feedback in a variety of different ways from different people. Look for qualitative and quantitative measure through formal and informal means. This can include measures of attendance and return attendance as well as feedback on experience. Ask for feedback, both formally and informally, from all participants, parents, and any volunteers you may have.

Managing Child Behavior in Storytime

The success of storytimes can sometimes be unpredictable, but certain preparatory steps can maximize fun and prevent distractions. Songs and rhymes serve as stretchers for the mind and body. Room set-up and book selection also contribute to behavior. The storyteller should be central to everyone’s view, and the audience should face away from the room entrance to prevent distractions if people walk in late. [15]

The most important step in planning and executing a fun storytime is to pick books that are fun. If the person reading the book seems uninterested, everyone else in the room will also become uninterested. As a general rule, the longest book should be the first book read. Books at the end of storytime should be shorter. Selecting books that feature a lot of audience participation can also help prevent distraction.

Often, allowing parents to sit with their children helps with crowd control, but this does not always work. When children begin to grow restless, it might help to speed up the current reading or abridge the book so that the next song can refocus the room’s attention. Also useful is the trick of bringing the book to face the storyteller and asking for everyone’s attention before the story can continue.

As with any storytime, attitude is key. Carrie Rogers-Whitehead and Jennifer Fay urge practitioners to “keep and kind and patient attitude” and “use positive words and phrases.”[16] Positive reinforcement such as, “Look how nicely Stacey is sitting!” provides a model of good behavior without calling attention to one child’s “bad” behavior.


Practical Applications for School Librarians to Incorporate Storytime

Storytime in libraries, whether it is in public libraries or grade schools, is crucial in shaping a young child’s opinion of the library. For the majority of children going to storytime will be the first experience that they will have with the library. By creating a welcoming atmosphere and doing simple changes to make the library more accessible to younger children, storytime will become a favorite in preschool aged children.[17]

Strategies for Success with Preschoolers

1. Choose books with age-appropriate attributes

  • literary quality
  • visual quality
  • developmental fit
  • language considerations
    • overall length of text
    • appearance & placement of text on the page
    • concrete illustrations
    • complexity of concepts/familiarity with subject matter
    • text predictibility
    • unique vs. familiar words

2. Learn names of participants

  • Supply students with name tags
  • Create a seating chart
  • Ask student to say their name when checking out a book

3. Store books in optimal locations

  • Place preschool appropriate books at a lower level
  • Have predetermined locations for preschoolers to search for books, such as specified shelves or book tubs

How to Share Books with Pre-readers

During a storytime, you should share the whole book with the children. Storytimes are a great opportunity to teach children about the different parts of the book, not just share the story with them. It is important to introduce them to different elements on the title page, the publication data, and extra information on the front and back covers. Always let the children participate and become storytellers themselves in order to promote diological reading. In part, this means that reading the text is not always the most important part of storytime. Allowing children to engage with the illustrations supports the pre-reading skills prescribed by Every Child Ready to Read. The illustrations are a great tool for asking children to create predictions. Ask children questions related to the illustration. Think aloud with them as they ask questions, make predictions, and point out things that they notice. When you are reading the words, point to the words as you go so that the children can easily follow along. The most important part of sharing books with pre-readers is to have fun while you share the book. The more fun you are having, the more fun they will have.


Outreach Storytimes

Outreach storytimes provide a valuable service to places that might not otherwise have access to the library. Collaboration is key to making outreach a success. While the librarian visits, teachers must participate alongside the children to encourage learning because “the teachers know the strengths and limitations of the individual students.” [18]

Outreach storytimes also serve as a model of professional development, in which providers can demonstrate the "teaching skills, behaviors, questioning techniques, and management strategies needed... supporting the growth of emerging readers."[19]

Developing a clear outreach plan
  1. Identify the target audience and where to find them
  2. Identify possible community partners
  3. Identify goals and benefits of the program
  4. Identify costs of the program. If necessary, seek resources from community partner or outside funding
Preparation, planning, and effort are required to develop successful partnerships, but the impact of the library's storytime programming can be much greater if these efforts are made.


Storytimes for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Depending on your user group, it may be advantageous to have a storytime made to accommodate children with special needs, such as an autism spectrum disorder. The set up of a typical storytime, where children are expect to sit still and quiet for extended periods of time while stories are read, may be too demanding for these children. One example of a special needs storytime comes from the Multnomah County Library in Portland, Oregon. Their monthly "sensory storytime" was developed in response to a need identified by parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Their Youth Services Director Ellen Fader identified the most important aspect of running this storytime. She said, " Flexibility is the key: books may be repeated a few times or abandoned if they're not working. Staff include music, puppets, and sometimes a simple craft activity. The staff tone is calm, concrete, reassuring, and accepting of all behaviors except that which hurts others". [20] The aspect involved in the sensory storytime are almost identical to those of a typical storytime, but the behavioral demand on the children is significantly reduced.
It is very important to put a great amount of planning into creating a storytime for a group of children with special needs. Librarians should consult with experts in order to create an environment that is sensitive to the needs of the patrons and programs that are developmentally appropriate, both in terms of cognitive and emotional development. Creating relationships with community partners such as local schools, institutes, and foundations can prove to be mutually beneficial. Not only will you receive the expert knowledge needed to run such a program, but you can provide services to a new group of patrons. The Sherman Library's Public Library Services of the Alvan Sherman Library, Research, and Information Technology Center at Nova Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale, Florida partnered with the Baudhuin Preschool and Mailman Segal Institute for Early Childhood Studies in order to provide the best services and programs for patrons with autism spectrum disorders.[21] The librarians of the King County Library System in King County, Washington gave a presentation at the Washington Library Conference in 2012 outlining their process of planning and implementing a storytime for children with special needs. Their presentation handout, title "Programming for Children with Special Needs" can be found here. [22]



Selected Resources for Planning Storytimes

crash-course-in-storytime-fundamentals-penny-peck-paperback-cover-art.jpg
Peck, Penny. Crash Course in Storytime Fundamentals. Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited, 2008.
Price: $30.00
ISBN: 978-1-59158-715-6
Review:
Experienced youth services librarian Peck offers storytime guidance in this new title in the Crash Course series, designed to bolster novices with information about important library services and practices. The title covers preparation and publicity; different kinds of storytimes and storytime audiences; elements such as music, storytelling, and puppets; management issues within the storytime; and recruiting and supervising volunteers. A lengthy appendix lists a multitude of storytime themes, each with a list of suggested book titles and an additional craft (plus sometimes a song or two); a bibliography and an index are also included.
--Deborah Stevenson, The Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books[23]
Wiki More Family Cover.jpg
Reid, Rob. More Family Storytimes: Twenty-four Creative Programs for All Ages. Chicago: American Library Association, 2009.
Price: $45.00
ISBN: 978-0-8389-0973-7
Review:
This companion to Reid's excellent Family Storytime (ALA, 1999) provides an additional 24 full-session activities just right for mixed-age programming. Themes are identical to those from the earlier volume, but almost all books and songs are new. For each session, the author provides descriptions of each activity as well as additional "Mix and Match" suggestions for substitutions or additions. Highly appealing and easy-to-learn songs, poems, and movement activities work well for group participation, both by kids and adults. Many are clever adaptations of traditional rhymes: "The Grand Old Duke of York" becomes "My Grand Old Uncle York" to match a theme, for example, and "Jack and Jill" becomes a sure winner with added motions for each line, repeated three times at increasing speeds. The many Reid originals, such as "Five Little Kiddos" and "Baby Bear Roars," typically feature participation, moving around, and uncomplicated silliness. Book choices have the broad appeal necessary for the widely mixed ages of the intended audience, as do the ideas for poetry, crafts, and riddles. The author's experience with family programming and his sense of playfulness come through in the descriptions, so the book is inspiring as well as instructive. This is a valuable resource for family storytime presenters, whether using the themed structure or creating new sessions from the wealth of creative ideas.

--Steven Engelfried, School Library Journal[24]
NEWmore-storytime-action.jpg
Bromann, Jennifer. More Storytime Action!: 2000+ More Ideas for Making 500+ Picture Books Interactive. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2009.
Price: $55.00
ISBN: 978-1-55570-675-3
Review:
As a practicing librarian, author Bromann has had her fair share of storytimes disrupted by fidgety preschoolers, and as a result she has developed a repertoire of interactive literacy activities that aims to engage even the most rambunctious of storytime participants. Beginning with a short overview of the ten requisite elements of an interactive storytime put forth in Storytime Action!, Bromann expands here upon the incorporation of storytelling and best practices for selecting interactive books using reviews. The bulk of the book, however, is made up of ready-made theme-based storytimes as well as an extensive list of picture books published since the appearance of Storytime Action! in 2003 that lend themselves to active participation. Each book entry contains a summary and suggested activities, and the list includes such award-winners as Susan Marie Swanson's The House in the Night and Lisa Wheeler's Jazz Baby. Bibliographic references are included with each chapter, and the book concludes with separate theme and title indices.
-- Kate Quealy-Gainer, The Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books[25]
storytime-magic.jpg
Macmillam, Kathy, and Christine Kirker. Storytime Magic: 400 Fingerplays, Flannelboards, and Other Activities. American Library Association Editons, 2009.
Price: $47.00
ISBN: 978-0-8389-0977-5
Review:
Both new and veteran storytellers will appreciate this book. Sixteen chapters are arranged by themes such as "All About Me," "Animals," and "Holidays." Whenever a flannelboard idea is listed, a thumbnail pen-and-ink sketch of the necessary pieces is included next to a Web icon. Readers can then proceed to an ALA Web page to view the actual-sized pattern. An appendix gives further instruction on how to use other props or costumes along with a story. Unfortunately, the index of titles and first lines uses the articles "A," "An," and "The" in the alphabetical sort. The authors provide helpful group-management advice for all age ranges, as well as for incorporating American Sign Language into stories. This book is similar in scope to Elizabeth Low's Big Book of Animals Rhymes, Fingerplays, and Songs (Libraries Unlimited, 2009). However, Low includes some Spanish rhymes and musical notation for 94 songs. Storytime Magic is equally fine for professional collections.
--Blair Christolon, School Libary Journal[26]
storytime-sourcebook.jpg
Cullum, Carolyn N. The Storytime Sourcebook II: A Compendium of 3,500+ New Ideas and Resources for Storytellers. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2007.
Price: $80.00
ISBN:978-1-55570-589-3
Review:
Updated from the 1997 edition, this attractive and user-friendly volume is a must-buy. Each of the 146 themed programs, designed for children ages two to eight, appears on two facing pages that include appropriate calendar tie-ins, videos, books, music, movements, crafts, activities, and songs. The book offers the resources to plan appealing programs and the indexes needed to locate the suggested materials. Cullum offers many more ideas for clever and entertaining programs than other sources for children's story sessions. She presents clear and simple directions for crafts and activities, quick and uncomplicated for librarians to prepare, and easy for children to follow. The crafts in most other guides require too much time and skill for most librarians who have no volunteer assistance. This sourcebook is an essential purchase for libraries serving this audience.
--Judy Sokoll, School Library Journal[27]

Additional Resources on the Science & Craft of Storytelling

Haven, Kendall. Story Proof: The Science Behind the Startling Power of Story. Libraries Unlimited, 2007. Print.
The first-ever scientific proof that “story structure” is an information delivery system powerhouse, evolutionarily hardwired into human brains. Using evidence gathered from 16 fields of science research (neural biology, developmental psychology, neural linguistics, clinical psychology, cognitive sciences, information theory, neural net modeling, education theory, knowledge management theory, anthropology, organization theory, narratology, medical science, narrative therapy, and, of course, storytelling and writing) STORY PROOF presents the overwhelming evidence that human minds naturally—automatically—perceive in specific story terms, understand and create meaning through specific story elements, and remember and recall in and through story structures.

Haven, Kendall and Mary Gay Ducey. Crash Course in Storytelling. Libraries Unlimited, 2007. Print.
A practical, no-nonsense guide for using your natural oral abilities to select, learn, and tell stories. Written for librarians, but universally applicable in its approach and concepts, the book includes sections on all major storytelling "extras" from flannel boards to costumes to audience participation.

Lipman, Doug. Improving Your Storytelling: Beyond the Basics for All Who Tell Stories in Work and Play. August House, 2005. Print.
Lipman uses theory, practical suggestions, and personal examples in this in-depth study of the relationships among story, teller, and audience. He delves into the definition of "story," structure and meaning, and models for learning a story. The author discusses the appeal of a tale to the teller; the conflicts, fears, and other psychological issues it may raise; and the emotional work that must be done before the telling. He explores the transfer of the tale's imagery by means of oral language, facial expression and body language, and voice. The book is easy to read and has an engaging and personal style. Lipman's guide is based on his own experience and that of other professional tellers. It is a must for those who strive to gain a higher level of skill, and who wish to make the story a transforming gift to the listener. -Judy Sokoll, formerly at Fairfax County Public Library, VA, School Library Journal

MacDonald, Margaret Read. The Storyteller's Start-up Book: Finding, Learning, Performing, and Using Folk Tales. August House Publishers, 2006. Print.
Following her fine collection, Peace Tales (Shoe String, 1992), MacDonald here distills her extensive storytelling experience into 16 very brief, schematically organized chapters. Her advice covers the practical ground, from selection, learning (in one hour!), performance, and setting to classroom applications. Her philosophy of telling is simple: "Do it!" A confidence-building coach, MacDonald conveys the value of storytelling in an infectious manner. A dozen texts of proven success follow, with performance tips and source notes. Equally valuable are the selected and annotated bibliographies appended to every chapter. This straightforward volume would be a handy reference even for veterans. Few readers will be able to encounter MacDonald's encouraging advocacy without feeling an urge to find a story and audience of their own. - Patricia Dooley, Univ. of Washington Lib. Sch., Seattle, Library Journal

Resources for Song and Fingerplay Selection

http://wiki.kcls.org/tellmeastory/index.php/Fingerplays,_Rhymes_and_Songs
The "Tell Me a Story" page of the King County Library System provides a treasure trove of songs, rhymes and fingerplays to use for interactive storytimes. Many of the songs feature videos to model actions. Some are text-only. The page is updated regularly and is organized according to song name or theme.

http://www.wccls.org/rhymes
"Fingerplay Fun" provides excellent, instructive videos for storytime planning. The page features an explanation of the usefulness of rhyming in early literacy. There is also a section devoted to rhymes in Spanish.

http://www.hclib.org/birthto6/EarlyLit_puppets.cfm
The Hennepin County Public Library's early literacy page features some great fingerplays and songs as well as links to other excellent resources. The page also provides a link to book lists for storytimes according to age. There is a list of songs and other resources in Spanish.


Bibliography


  1. ^ Albright, M., Delecki, K., & Hinkle, S. (2009). The Evolution of Early Literacy: A History of Best Practices in Storytimes. Children & Libraries: The Journal Of The Association For Library Service To Children, 7(1), 13-18.
  2. ^ Peck, P. (2009). Crash Course in Storytime Fundamentals. Westport, Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited.
  3. ^ Rogers-Whitehead, Carrie and Fay, Jennifer. (2010). Managing Children's Behavior in Storytimes. Children and Libraries: The Journal of the Association for Library Service to Children, 8(1), 8-12.
  4. ^ Ghoting, S. N. and Martin-Diaz, P. (2006). Early Literacy Stortimes @ Your Library: Partnering with Caregivers for Success. Chicago: American Library Association.
  5. ^ Albright, M., Delecki, K., & Hinkle, S. (2009). The Evolution of Early Literacy: A History of Best Practices in Storytimes. Children & Libraries: The Journal Of The Association For Library Service To Children, 7(1), 13-18.
  6. ^ Albright, M., Delecki, K., & Hinkle, S. (2009). The Evolution of Early Literacy: A History of Best Practices in Storytimes. Children & Libraries: The Journal Of The Association For Library Service To Children, 7(1), 13-18.
  7. ^ Tilley, C. (2012). How do young children become literate? What roles can libraries play in this process?[PowerPoint slides] Retrieved from
  8. ^ Every Child Ready to Read @ Your Library: Literature Review (2010). Every Child Ready to Read. Retrieved November 16, 2011 from
    http://www.everychildreadytoread.org/project-history%09/literature-review-2010.
  9. ^ as cited in Bane, R. "Let's Pretend: 50 Start-to-Finish Preschooler Programs for the Busy Librarian that Foster Imagination". New York: Neal Schuster, 2010.
  10. ^ Every Child Ready to Read @ Your Library: Literature Review (2010). Every Child Ready to Read. Retrieved November 16, 2011 from
    http://www.everychildreadytoread.org/project-history%09/literature-review-2010.
  11. ^ Every Child Ready to Read @ Your Library: Literature Review (2010). Every Child Ready to Read. Retrieved November 16, 2011 from
    http://www.everychildreadytoread.org/project-history%09/literature-review-2010.
  12. ^ Every Child Ready to Read @ Your Library: Literature Review (2010). Every Child Ready to Read. Retrieved November 16, 2011 from
    http://www.everychildreadytoread.org/project-history%09/literature-review-2010.
  13. ^ Every Child Ready to Read @ Your Library: Literature Review (2010). Every Child Ready to Read. Retrieved November 16, 2011 from
    http://www.everychildreadytoread.org/project-history%09/literature-review-2010.
  14. ^ Bane, R. (2010). Let's Pretend: 50 Start-to-Finish Preschooler Programs for the Busy Librarian That Foster Imagination. New York: Neal-Schuman.
  15. ^

    Rogers-Whitehead, Carrie and Fay, Jennifer. (2010). Managing Children's Behavior in Storytimes. Children and Libraries: The Journal of the Association for Library Service to Children, 8(1), 8-12.
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    Rogers-Whitehead, Carrie and Fay, Jennifer. (2010). Managing Children's Behavior in Storytimes. Children and Libraries: The Journal of the Association for Library Service to Children, 8(1), 8-12.
  17. ^


    Schwindt, M., & Tegeler, J. (2010). Preschool Story Time: Fun and Learning in the School Library. School Library Monthly , 26 (6), 14-15.
  18. ^



    Cahill, Maria. (2004). Meeting the Early Literacy Needs of Children through Preschool Outreach Storytime Programs. Knowledge Quest, 33(2), 61-62.
  19. ^

    Cahill, Maria. (2004). Meeting the Early Literacy Needs of Children through Preschool Outreach Storytime Programs. Knowledge Quest, 33(2), 61-62.
  20. ^



    Fader, Ellen. "Sensory Storytime." School Library Journal 55.10 (2009): 14. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Nov. 2012.
  21. ^





    Leon, Anne. "Beyond Barriers." Children & Libraries: The Journal Of The Association For Library Service To Children 9.3 (2011): 12-14. Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts. Web. 28 Nov. 2012.
  22. ^





    Ferrell, Patricia, Cathy Gallagher, Jill Olson, Kate Patrick, Paula Burton, and Bernadette Salgado. "Programming for Children with Special Needs." Lecture. Washington Library Conference. Tulalip Resort Conference Center, Tulalip, WA. Washington Library Association. 20 Apr. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <2012conference.wla.org/files/2011/06/Programming-for-Children-with-Special-Needs.pdf>.
  23. ^ Stevenson, D. (2009). [Review of the book Crash Course in Storytime Fundamentals]. Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, 63(1), 50. Available from Project MUSE.
  24. ^


    Engelfried, Steven. (2009). [Review of the book More Family Storytimes: Twenty-four Creative Programs for All Ages]. School Library Journal. Retrieved from http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA6633082.html
  25. ^ Quealy-Gainer, K. (2010). [Review of the book More Storytime Action!: 2000+ More Ideas for Making 500+ Picture Books Interactive]. Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, 63(9), 407. Available from Project MUSE.
  26. ^ Christolon, B. (2009). [Review of the book Storytime Magic: 400 Fingerplays, Flannelboards, and Other Activities]. School Library Journal. Retrieved from
    http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA6674060.html.
  27. ^ Sokoll, J. (2007). [Review of the book The Storytime Sourcebook II: A Compendium of 3500+ New Ideas and Resources for Storytellers]. School Library Journal. Retrieved from
    http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA6448970.html?nid=3265.